Thursday, February 28, 2013

ATN:MyStudents: LIN Media Scholarship $$




"LIN Media Invites Students Pursuing Degrees in Broadcast Television or Digital Media to Apply for Minority Scholarship and Training Program"

"LIN Media is now accepting applications for its Minority Scholarship and Training Program and will award one broadcast television scholarship/internship and one digital media scholarship/internship in April 2013, to commence in Summer 2013."

Deadline soon.  See details on LIN scholarship site.



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Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


Time played: 2 hrs


119 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






"What most schools don't teach" (My New Fav YouTube Video) [VID]



I just added this video as a favorite on my YouTube channel.





Originally uploaded to YouTube by CodeOrg.

See Video: What most schools don't teach

Description: "Learn about a new "superpower" that isn't being taught in in 90% of US schools. Starring Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, will.i.am, Chris Bosh, Jack Dorsey, Tony Hsieh, Drew Houston, Gabe Newell, Ruchi Sanghvi, Elena Silenok, Vanessa Hurst, and Hadi Partovi. Directed by Lesley Chilcott."



Subscribe to my YouTube Channel.

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Sunday, February 24, 2013

Time Card: 2/17-2/23 - 51 Hours - Busy With Teaching, Research & Service



Time Card: 2/17/2013 - 2/23/2013

51 hours this past week.   Busy with teaching, research & service. Like the past weeks of this semester.

Below is a record of the work that I've done over this past week, mainly in the areas of research, teaching and service. I usually average about 50 to 55 hours per week. Unlike the summer, most of my time during the fall and spring semesters is spent on teaching and service. If you are interested in how I keep track of this information and why, please let me know. 


DateDayTaskAreaTotalWork unit notes
02/17/2013SunMisc EmlTodoScdMISC00:24
02/17/2013SunProj-DjangoRESEARCH04:00
02/18/2013MonCrsPrepTEACHING04:00
02/18/2013MonMisc EmlTodoScdMISC04:38
02/19/2013TueCrsPrepTEACHING00:59
02/19/2013TueMisc EmlTodoScdMISC00:17
02/19/2013TueMCM450TEACHING01:30
02/19/2013TueJRN290TEACHING06:48
02/19/2013TueProj-DjangoRESEARCH01:05
02/20/2013WedCrsPrepTEACHING01:48
02/20/2013WedMisc EmlTodoScdMISC01:08
02/20/2013WedDeptServSERVICE01:20
02/20/2013WedProj-DjangoRESEARCH01:10
02/21/2013ThuMisc EmlTodoScdMISC03:09
02/21/2013ThuMCM450TEACHING01:30
02/21/2013ThuJRN290TEACHING02:02
02/21/2013ThuMCM390TEACHING05:16
02/22/2013FriMisc EmlTodoScdMISC02:02
02/22/2013FriDeptServSERVICE01:00
02/22/2013FriJRN290TEACHING01:09
02/22/2013FriMCM390TEACHING00:29
02/23/2013SatMisc EmlTodoScdMISC00:20
02/23/2013SatProj-DjangoRESEARCH04:51
TOTAL50:55


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Friday, February 22, 2013

Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


Time played: 2 hrs


117 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Thursday, February 21, 2013

GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Diffusion of Innovations (U5-P3) Sp13

Everett Rogers

Discuss Diffusion of Innovations as an Approach to Development.

Everett Rogers wrote Diffusion of Innovations (1962, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2003).

What is an innovation?
  • An idea, object or practice...
  • Perceived as new...
  • By an individual or organization.


What is the diffusion of innovations?
  • An innovation ...
  • Communicated via channels...
  • Over time...
  • Among the members of a social system.




CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATIONS
The characteristics (or attributes) of innovations, as perceived by individuals, help to explain their rate of adoption.  Characteristics of innovations are one important set of variables influencing the rate of adoption.

  1. Relative Advantage
    1. Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes
    2. e.g. economic profitability, decrease in discomfort, savings in time and effort, immediacy of reward
  2. Compatibility
    1. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.
    2. Example: rap music and the role of MTV in making rap accessible and acceptable for all youth (Black & White).
  3. Complexity
    1. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use.
    2. Example: DOS vs. Windows
  4. Trialability
    1. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis.
  5. Observability
    1. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.
    2. Examples: solar panels & DBS, PrimeStar, DISH and the like

Given the above, how could diffusion of innovations (a communication theory) be used in development work?



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Wednesday, February 20, 2013

Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


Time played: 1 hr


115 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Tuesday, February 19, 2013

DigPhotog: The Ethics of Photo Manipulation

So, one of the benefits of digital photography is that it is so easy to edit a photograph.

However, you could also say one of the problems with digital photography is that it is so easy to edit a photography.


How can this be both a benefit and a problem?




Digital photo manipulation: "the application of image editing techniques to photographs in order to create an illusion or deception (in contrast to mere enhancement or correction), through analog or digital means." (Wikipedia)


Ethics: "(1) the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. (2) a set of moral principles : a theory or system of moral values —often used in plural but singular or plural in construction... (3) the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." (Merriam-Webster)

What are your ethical standards when it comes to digital manipulation?

When is it O.K. to manipulate a photograph and when is it not?
Would it be acceptable in the area of art, but not in journalism?  Why?

Digital manipulation of photos can come up in the realm of politics as in the Fox News clip below.  The third photo shown (with the poodle) is clearly "photoshopped," but so are the previous two photos of the two men (yellowed teeth, etc.).



Digital manipulation controversies can also show up in the realm of advertising with some racist overtones.  
One example: Did Vanity Fair lighten Beyonce’s skin? - Entertainment - Access Hollywood - TODAY.com.  For more on this story and other related digital manipulations in the news, see this set of links.





Browse through the many examples of photo manipulation found on Photo Tampering Throughout History.  This site has over 120 examples of photo manipulations from the late 1800s to today.  There are 26 examples from 2011.  As you check out the examples on the site, see if you can fine tune your ethical standards about photo manipulation.  When is it O.K.?  When is it not?


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DigPhotog: The Technical Aspects of Digital Photography [VID]


If you are looking for videos that explain the technical basics of digital photography, I'd recommend Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)).  The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.  Below are a few excerpts from the video series.






Compared to traditional film photography, what are the benefits of digital photography?
Ratty offered two benefits.  To that list we can add: (3) digital photography allows for a smaller storage space and (4) digital photography allows for easy editing.

Did you catch some of the key photography terms that Ratty defined?
Did you catch the misspelling in the clip?


Technical Steps to Taking a Photograph (camera set-up, etc.)


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DigPhotog: Rules of Composition: Not Just for Still Photography - How to Use in Video [VID]


The "rules" of composition that you learn for still photography can also be used in your video work.  After you learned about composition in still photography (rule of thirds, framing, etc.), did you start to spot those same rules being used in your favorite TV show or movie?  If not, look for it the next time you are watching TV or a movie.

Take, for example, the Tarantino film, Kill Bill.


Just focus on the rule of thirds.  How often do you see the rule of thirds?  How is it used?



Now, you try it.  Go to YouTube (or another video source) and look for clips of a favorite movie.  See how many rules of composition you see being used.  Besides the rule of thirds, what else do you see?  Framing?


If you are interested in this sort of thing, you may want to check out my Vimeo album called "Rules of Composition in Film" (Thanks to "kogonada" who compiled most of the clips).  Below is one of five video clips in the album.  Neat, yeah?  What rule of composition is shown in the Kubrick films?


Kubrick // One-Point Perspective from kogonada on Vimeo.



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ResearchMethods: Validity, Reliability, Etc.: Definitions (Written and Visual) (U6-P1) Sp13

You operationalize your variables in order to measure them.
So, now let's talk about measurement and related concepts.

When measuring your variables you may ask yourself...
Is my measure “on target”?
Do my measures “cluster together”?

But what does that mean?

What we are talking about is validity and reliability.

Back to measuring prejudice in people. How would you do that? A survey? What would the questions be on the survey?  Your measure of prejudice needs to be valid and reliable measures.  Are you sure they are valid and reliable?


Validity: “the extent that scales or questions do measure what they are thought to measure”(Stacks & Hocking).





Or think or a bathroom scale.  What does it mean to say a bathroom scale is valid or not?


2012_May_03_Bathroom Scale_008
Photo by elcamino73. Used under Creative Commons.



Reliability: “the extent to which measurement yields numbers (data) are consistent, stable, and dependable.” (Stacks & Hocking).





































What about a bathroom scale and reliability?  What does it mean to say that a bathroom scale is reliable?



2012_May_03_Bathroom Scale_008
Photo by elcamino73. Used under Creative Commons.




Can an instrument can be reliable, but not valid. That is, cluster together, but not be on target?




















An Example

Let's say we are interested in the topic of communication apprehension.  More specifically, we are interested in the relationship between gender and communication apprehension.  Do men or women have higher levels of communication apprehension?  How would we go about answering that question?

How would we measure communication apprehension in our subjects (the people we are studying)?  We could observe.  What about a survey?  Yeah, let's do a survey.  Something like below.

-------------------------------------
Conversation Apprehension Scale

1. While participating in a conversation with a new acquaintance, I feel very nervous.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

2. I have no fear of speaking up in conversations.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

3. Ordinarily I am very tense and nervous in conversations.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

4. Ordinarily I am very calm and relaxed in conversations.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

------------------------------------


Think of this survey as a measuring instrument, just like a bathroom scale. The bathroom scale measures your weight and this survey would measure your communication apprehension.

Does our instrument (the above survey) have good measurement validity and measurement reliability? How would you determine that?

Measurement validity:
“the extent to which researchers are actually measuring the concepts they intend to measure”(FBFK)
Do the instruments give accurate/true readings?

Measurement reliability:
“the extent to which measurements of a variable are consistent and trustworthy”(FBFK)
Do the instruments continue to give the same readings every time they are used?


What are the procedures for checking an instrument’s reliability?

Similar results every time?
0% = Not reliable to 100% highly reliable

Three Ways to Check Instrument’s Reliability
1. Test and retest it.
2. Test, change wording slightly, retest.
3. Compare 1/2 items to the other 1/2

3 options, Not step-by-step
Which option is best?  Costs and benefits?



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Monday, February 18, 2013

"Breaking Bad // POV" (My New Fav Vimeo Vid) [VID]

I just added this video as a favorite on my Vimeo account.



Originally uploaded to Vimeo by kogonada.

See Video: Breaking Bad // POV

Description: "Music: "Move" by Jonathan Elias"



Subscribe to my Vimeo Channel.

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Sunday, February 17, 2013

Time Card: 2/10-2/16 - 60 Hours - Yet Another Busy Week



Time Card: 2/10/2013 - 2/16/2013

60 hours this past week.  Yet another busy week.

Below is a record of the work that I've done over this past week, mainly in the areas of research, teaching and service. I usually average about 50 to 55 hours per week. Unlike the summer, most of my time during the fall and spring semesters is spent on teaching and service. If you are interested in how I keep track of this information and why, please let me know. 

DateDayTaskAreaTotalWork unit notes
02/10/2013SunResMiscRESEARCH02:02
02/10/2013SunProj-DjangoRESEARCH03:42
02/11/2013MonResMiscRESEARCH00:38
02/11/2013MonMisc EmlTodoScdMISC01:59
02/11/2013MonMCM450TEACHING01:03
02/11/2013MonJRN290TEACHING01:25
02/11/2013MonProj-DjangoRESEARCH03:02
02/12/2013TueCrsPrepTEACHING02:04
02/12/2013TueMisc EmlTodoScdMISC00:22
02/12/2013TueMCM450TEACHING02:41
02/12/2013TueJRN290TEACHING05:55
02/12/2013TueProj-DjangoRESEARCH01:22
02/13/2013WedMisc EmlTodoScdMISC00:23
02/13/2013WedMCM450TEACHING02:20
02/13/2013WedJRN290TEACHING02:00
02/13/2013WedProj-DjangoRESEARCH04:45
02/14/2013ThuResMiscRESEARCH00:40
02/14/2013ThuCrsPrepTEACHING00:27
02/14/2013ThuMisc EmlTodoScdMISC01:43
02/14/2013ThuMCM450TEACHING01:33
02/14/2013ThuJRN290TEACHING01:53
02/14/2013ThuMCM390TEACHING05:37
02/14/2013ThuProj-DjangoRESEARCH01:42
02/15/2013FriMisc EmlTodoScdMISC00:18
02/15/2013FriProj-DjangoRESEARCH06:36
02/16/2013SatDeptServSERVICE01:39
02/16/2013SatJRN290TEACHING00:20
02/16/2013SatMisc emlTodoScdMISC02:20
TOTAL60:31



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Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


Time played: 1 hr


114 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Far Cry 3 (360).


WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Far Cry 3 (360).


Time played: 2 hrs


3 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Far Cry 3 (360).


WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Far Cry 3 (360).


Time played: 50 mins


0 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Saturday, February 16, 2013

"Finding Vivian Maier - Official Movie Trailer" (My New Fav YouTube Video) [VID]



I just added this video as a favorite on my YouTube channel.





Originally uploaded to YouTube by VivianMaierFilm.

See Video: Finding Vivian Maier - Official Movie Trailer

Description: "This is the official trailer for the documentary film, Finding Vivian Maier. A film unraveling the life of the now famous Vivian Maier and John Maloof's journey to piece together Maier's past. www.facebook.com/findingvivianmaier www.twitter.com/vivianmaierfilm www.findingvivianmaier.com (Film website) www.vivianmaier.com (Maier's photographs)"



Subscribe to my YouTube Channel.

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Game Research: WilliamHartPhD managed to fit in a quick game of Minecraft (XBLA).


WilliamHartPhD managed to fit in a quick game of Minecraft (XBLA).


Time played: 26 mins


112 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Thursday, February 14, 2013

GlobalMedia: Development Communication: A History (Marshall Plan, etc.) (U5-P2) Sp13

"Uncle" Wilbur

A Historical Sketch of Development Communication

First a quick overview...

Dr. Wilbur Schramm

According to Rogers, Schramm is the founder of the social science study of communication (late 40s-50s) and key founder of development communication.
  • 1950s: 
  • 1960s: 
    • Schramm: How to help them? His answer: w/ mass media - “the great multiplier.” Need to bring in mass media technology.
  • 1970s: 
    • Many countries implemented mass media programs.
  • 1980s: 
    • 1) Concern with “Neo-imperialism”
    • Hamid Mowlana
    • 2) Mowlana: users of mass media blind to the importance of traditional forms of communication in some societies/cultures. “Technology vs. Tradition” (Mowlana)
  • 1990s: 
    • Use of mass media to aid in development, but w/ caution regarding culture. Example: AIDS/HIV education in radio program in Tanzania & TV soap opera in China (Rogers)
  • 2000s: 
    • New issues and use of new communication technologies
(Sources: based on Mowlana, 1996, 1997, Stevenson, 1993, Rogers, 1997)



Now back to the 40s and 50s...

Coming out of World War II the U.S. was in good shape (economically, politically, etc.), but many of the nations of Europe faced problems.

To get a sense of the problems faced see CNN Perspectives Presents Cold War. (See also background info on this CNN series.)

Some of the series is available online.  As you watch the clips below pay close attention to the Marshall Plan.  What relationship does it have to development communication?

U.S. provided $$ and expertise in "reconstructing" Europe. U.S. foreign policy (lead by Truman) changed isolationism to “active leadership.” The U.S. offered the Marshall Plan* (more on Marshall Plan from CNN).

See the clips 0:00 to 1:20 and from 20:28 to 27:46





Why should the U.S. help European countries after WWII?
  1. humanitarian concerns (White Man’s Burden again?)
  2. stop spread of communism!

Truman Doctrine: to defend freedom & democracy worldwide.

Edward T. Hall
After reconstructing Europe Truman offered the world “the benefits of our [U.S.] scientific advances and industrial progress… for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.”

This was called the Point Four Program. (Director, Edward Hall)
One of the key tasks taken on by Hall was teaching U.S. diplomats intercultural communication skills. The formal study of intercultural communication can be traced back to Hall and this program.  Hall has been called the founding father of intercultural communication study.

The government lacked knowledge on how to develop nations, so they turned to academia. Development theories were developed in economics, psychology, political science, sociology, and communication. For example, Wilbur Schramm offered his theory/approach to development.  By the mid-70s, development programs were recognized as ineffective. Schramm, Rogers and others recognized the faults.

Everett M. Rogers
What was wrong? According to Rogers (1976)
The old way of doing development programs had the following errors:

  1. They assume infinite economic growth, ignore problems like population growth, pollution, etc., and do not take into account the "quality of life."
  2. They emphasize technology and capital rather than labor, thus encouraging economic dependence on advanced countries. Low priority to agriculture.
  3. It blames the developing countries for their failings, ignoring external factors beyond their control.
  4. It takes an ethnocentric (Western) bias by emphasizing the modernization of "traditional" individuals.


(Sources: International Encyclopedia of Communication, "Development Communication," 1989; "Marshall Plan" Britannica Online.].).



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GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Some Key Terms (U5-P1) Sp13


Define/explain the terms development, development communication and development journalism.


Development: "purposive changes undertaken in a society to achieve what may be regarded generally as a different ('improved') state of social and economic affairs"(Hern├índez-Ramos & Schramm, 1989).


Development projects typically focus on certain areas/issues of a society (e.g. agriculture, health, nutrition, family planning, women's empowerment, etc.)

Development communication: the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society.


Development journalism: a 'branch' of development communication in which news media are used.
Journalism: "the collection and editing of news for presentation through the media"(M-W Dictionary)


Your Development Project


If you had lots of money (through a grant, etc.) and you wanted to do good in the world, what would you do?  If you wanted to help with some health issue in another country, what would you do?
If you wanted to help and you wanted to put your media knowledge and media skills to use, what would you do?

So, what ideas did you come up with?  How would you do development communication?  Maybe a P.S.A. that presents the facts?  Did you think about putting a development message inside of  TV or radio drama?


Entertainment Education

The idea of presenting a development message within a fictional program is the type of development communication that is called entertainment education.  The World Bank is a multinational organization that uses entertainment education in their work.  See the video below for examples and background information.





Below is another example of entertainment education.  Tim Reid, noted Norfolk State University alumnus and actor/director/producer, and NSU students (Maryna Kariuk and Shimira Cole) were involved in the making of "Hear My Son".  How exactly is this an example of entertainment education?


Hear My Son from Legacy Media Institute on Vimeo.


Interested in learning more about entertainment education, I'd recommend starting with a book edited by Arvind Singhal, Michael J. Cody, Everett M. Rogers and Miguel Sabido called
Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice (Routledge Communication Series)





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Wednesday, February 13, 2013

ResearchMethods: Operationalization: Levels of Measurement (U5-P2) [VID] Sp13

Levels of Measurement
or What kinda data ya got?


Recall the earlier discussion of types of variables?  Nominal variable and ordered variables
Now, let's expand that "ordered" type.

Level
Can be
Ranked?
Equal
Distance
Zero-Point
Example Variables
Nominal
No
N/A
N/A
Gender
Ordinal
Yes
No
N/A
List of most preferred TV shows
Interval
Yes
Yes
Arbitrary
Has + & -
Agreement on Likert-Scale
Ratio
Yes
Yes
Absolute
0 = absence
Amount of time talking

Nominal level:

  • nominal variables are classified into categories (names)
  • They are not arranged in any particular order
  • e.g., frequency counts, percentages.
    • 48% male and 52% female
    • 32% Catholic, 20% Baptist, etc.

Ordinal level:

  • categories are ordered from highest to lowest
  • intervals between categories are not standardized
    • e.g., frequency counts, percentages

Interval level:

  • categories are ranked
  • assumed equal distances between ranks
  • Arbitrary zero-point
    • e.g. temperature - 0 degrees doesn’t mean the absence of temperature. Scale has + & - values.
  • Another example: Likert-Scale

Ratio Level:

  • categories are ranked
  • Equal distances between rank
  • Absolute Zero point
  • e.g.,  °F or °C vs. K (Kelvin), age, weight, number of words in a sentence, etc.


What is the connection between a horse race and levels of measurement?
Horse race





















Photo used under Creative Commons.


How would the Mythbusters research (viewed earlier) fit in here?  Did they operationalize their variables?  How? At what level?


Watch from 0:00 to 10:10.
(Note: If the YouTube clip is no longer available, then the season 8 episode 6 can be found online on AmazonNetflix, etc., if you are interested.)






Note: The level of measurement (or kind/type of data) you have will determine what statistics you use.  More on this later.




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Game Research: WilliamHartPhD managed to fit in a quick game of Rocksmith (360).


WilliamHartPhD managed to fit in a quick game of Rocksmith (360).


Time played: 26 mins


0 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Game Research: WilliamHartPhD played a game of Minecraft (XBLA).




Time played: 3 hrs


104 hours total





To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

If you share some similar interests, let me know.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Tuesday, February 12, 2013

ResearchMethods: Operationalization: Definition of Operationalization :) (U5-P1) [VID] Sp13

What is an operational definition?  What does it mean to operationalize a variable?

  • “A statement that describes the observable characteristics of a concept being investigated…”(Frey, et.al).
  • “Specifies the procedures [or operations] the researcher uses to observe the variables” (Stacks, et.al)
  • Both I.V.s & D.V.s need O.D.s
  • Operational definitions allow you to measure a variable.

What does the following Jeff Foxworthy comedy have to do with operationalization?  What is Foxworthy doing in his jokes?




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Operationalization Examples:

1. Let's say you are going to do some research on prejudice, how would you operationalize prejudice?

  • Start with the conceptual definition or dictionary definition:
    • “the irrational hatred or suspicion of a particular group, race, religion, or sexual orientation”(Jandt).
  • What would the operational definition be?  How would you measure prejudice?



2. Let's say you are going to do some research on violence and video games, how would you operationalize violence?













3. Let's say you are going to do some research on the effects of television on children, what would be the variables you'd study and how would you operationalize them?






----

What are the basic “operational procedures” or ways of measuring variables?

Operational procedures:

  1. Self-report 
  2. Observer’s ratings
  3. Observe behavior




How would you use these procedures with prejudice or violence?  Which would "work" better?




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Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.