Friday, February 28, 2014

ResearchMethods: Operationalization: Levels of Measurement (U5-P2)[VID] Sp14

Levels of Measurement
or What kinda data ya got?


Recall the earlier discussion of types of variables?  Nominal variable and ordered variables
Now, let's expand that "ordered" type to get a total of four types of variables or levels of measurement.

Level
Can be
Ranked?
Equal
Distance
Zero-Point
Example Variables
NominalNoN/AN/AGender
OrdinalYesNoN/AList of most preferred TV shows
IntervalYesYes
Arbitrary
Has + & -
Agreement on Likert-Scale
RatioYesYes
Absolute
0 = absence
Amount of time talking


Nominal level:
  • nominal variables are classified into categories (names)
  • They are not arranged in any particular order
  • e.g., frequency counts, percentages.
    • 48% male and 52% female
    • 32% Catholic, 20% Baptist, etc.

Ordinal level:
  • categories are ordered from highest to lowest
  • intervals between categories are not standardized
    • e.g., frequency counts, percentages

Interval level:
  • categories are ranked
  • assumed equal distances between ranks
  • Arbitrary zero-point
    • e.g. temperature - 0 degrees doesn’t mean the absence of temperature. Scale has + & - values.
  • Another example: Likert-Scale

Ratio Level:
  • categories are ranked
  • Equal distances between rank
  • Absolute Zero point
  • e.g.,  °F or °C vs. K (Kelvin), age, weight, number of words in a sentence, etc.


What is the connection between a horse race and levels of measurement?
Horse race





















Photo used under Creative Commons.


How would the Mythbusters research (viewed earlier) fit in here?  Did they operationalize their variables?  How? At what level?


Watch from 0:00 to 10:10.
(Note: If the YouTube clip is no longer available, then the season 8 episode 6 can be found online on AmazonNetflix, etc., if you are interested.)







Note: The level of measurement (or kind/type of data) you have will determine what statistics you use.  More on this later.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






ResearchMethods: Operationalization: Definition of Operationalization :) (U5-P1) [VID] Sp14

What is an operational definition?  What does it mean to operationalize a variable?

Operational definition:
  • “A statement that describes the observable characteristics of a concept being investigated…”(Frey, et.al).
  • “Specifies the procedures [or operations] the researcher uses to observe the variables” (Stacks, et.al)
  • Both I.V.s & D.V.s need O.D.s
  • Operational definitions allow you to measure a variable.

What does the following Jeff Foxworthy comedy have to do with operationalization?  What is Foxworthy doing in his jokes?  Is he operationally defining something?




----
Operationalization Examples:

1. Let's say you are going to do some research on prejudice, how would you operationalize prejudice?

  • Start with the conceptual definition or dictionary definition:
    • “the irrational hatred or suspicion of a particular group, race, religion, or sexual orientation”(Jandt).
  • What would the operational definition be?  How would you measure prejudice?


2. Let's say you are going to do some research on violence and video games, how would you operationalize violence?

  • Conceptual/dictionary definition of violence: "exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse" (Merriam-Websters)
  • A 2/12/13 NYT news article about recent research on video games and violence
  • See an example of recent video game and violence research:

3. Let's say you are going to do some research on the effects of television on children, what would be the variables you'd study and how would you operationalize them?





----

What are the basic “operational procedures” or ways of measuring variables?

Operational procedures:
  1. Self-report 
    1. the researcher asks subjects to report about themselves
  2. Observer’s ratings 
    1. researcher asks subject to observer and rate another
  3. Observe behavior
    1. researcher observes subject
Which method would you trust more?  Which would give a more valid measure?  Why?

How would you use these procedures with prejudice or violence?  Which would "work" better?




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Saturday, February 22, 2014

"Morning Bird Song" (New photo of mine on Flickr)



Title: "Morning Bird Song"
Photographer: William Hart, Ph.D.
http://bit.ly/1meoMVj
Description: "via Instagram bit.ly/1jo1v4a"
Taken: February 22, 2014 at 05:56AM
(C) William Hart






Sunday, February 16, 2014

GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Ethnocentrism (U5-P8) Sp14



Generally speaking, a person who is ethnocentric thinks the ways of his or her people are the best and the ways of other groups are negative, backwards or inferior.  "Eating with chopsticks is stupid," they might say.

Ask me about "Zhong Guo."

Watch the following images.




What was your reaction to the images?  What does your reaction have to do with ethnocentrism?  Anything?

How do you "tear down" this brick?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Stereotype (U5-P7) Sp14



A stereotype generally has the following pattern:
All people in a certain group have a certain characteristic or set of characteristics.

If you were looking for clip art for "Native Americans" and all that you found were images like the top two images above, would this be an example of stereotyping?  How?  Use the definition.   How does the bottom image break the stereotype?  What exactly is the stereotype?

How do you tear down this brick?


Errata: "a general, fixed impression of a person based on group membership."

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Racism (U5-P6) Sp14


Note that there are two definitions of racism given here.

Notice any connection between racism and prejudice as previously defined?

Also, what are the differences among racism, prejudice and discrimination?  They are related terms, but they are not the same thing.

How do you tear down this brick?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Prejudice (U5-P5) Sp14



How do you tear down this brick?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Discrimination (U5-P4) Sp14




How do you tear down this brick?

What is the difference between discrimination, prejudice, racism?  See next few posts.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: InterculturalCom: Effective Intercultural Com: Assuming Similarity (U5-P3) Sp14



How do you "tear down" this brick?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Anxiety & Uncertainty (U5-P2) Sp14

Before moving on to anxiety (Brick #3) and uncertainty (Brick #4), I should point out that we've already covered Bricks 1 and 2.

What are they?  What are thing we've already covered that lead to difficulty in intercultural situations?

They are difference in language (Brick #1) and differences in nonverbal communication (Brick #2).

Before moving to the next bricks, one last question: How do you tear down this part of the wall, how do you fix differences in language and nonverbal communication?


And now, anxiety and uncertainty.


How does uncertainty lead to anxiety?  Got an example?


How does uncertainty and anxiety lead to ineffective intercultural communication?
How do you "tear down" these brick?   Which one would you fix first and once you fixed it would you have the second problem?





Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Intercultural Communication Model (U5-P1) Sp14

Recall the Intercultural Communication Model?




There is a brick wall between us and effective intercultural communication. 
What are the names of the bricks in this wall?  What specifically stops us from getting to effective intercultural communication (ICC)?   What are the bricks or barriers to effective intercultural communication?  

The first two bricks or barriers are differences in language and difference is in nonverbal communication.
For the others, see the following posts.




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Friday, February 14, 2014

DigPhotog: Basic Tech: File Formats in Digital Photography [VID] (U5-P4) Sp14

There are three primary file formats used in digital photography: jpeg, tiff and raw.*

So, what are they?  What are the differences?  What are the benefits and drawbacks of each?  Which should you use?*



Now with the basics out of the way, let's take a closer look at the idea of a raw file.  I like Mike Browne's cake metaphor.



If you want to learn more, I'd recommend "File Formats in Photography".


* Note that this discussion mainly applies to digital SLR cameras, since smartphones usually only allow jpeg formats.


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Basic Tech: Technical Meets Ethical: The Ethics of Photo Manipulation [VID] (U5-P3) Sp14

So, one of the benefits of digital photography is that it is so easy to edit a photograph.

However, you could also say one of the problems with digital photography is that it is so easy to edit a photography.   


How can this be both a benefit and a problem?


The advances in photographic technologies leads to some ethical issues in photography that need to be addressed.

Digital photo manipulation: "the application of image editing techniques to photographs in order to create an illusion or deception (in contrast to mere enhancement or correction), through analog or digital means." (Wikipedia)


Ethics: "(1) the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. (2) a set of moral principles : a theory or system of moral values —often used in plural but singular or plural in construction... (3) the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." (Merriam-Webster)


What are your ethical standards when it comes to digital manipulation?

When is it O.K. to manipulate a photograph and when is it not?
Would it be acceptable in the area of art, but not in journalism?  Why?

Digital manipulation of photos can come up in the realm of politics as in the Fox News clip below.  The third photo shown (with the poodle) is clearly "photoshopped," but so are the previous two photos of the two men (yellowed teeth, etc.).




Digital manipulation controversies can also show up in the realm of advertising with some racist overtones. One example: Did Vanity Fair lighten Beyonce’s skin? - Entertainment - Access Hollywood - TODAY.com. For more on this story and other related digital manipulations in the news, see this set of links.




Browse through the many examples of photo manipulation found on Photo Tampering Throughout History.  This site has over 120 examples of photo manipulations from the late 1800s to today.  There are 26 examples from 2011.  As you check out the examples on the site, see if you can fine tune your ethical standards about photo manipulation.  When is it O.K.?  When is it not?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Basic Tech: Film vs. Digital and Steps to Taking a Digital Photograph [VID] (U5-P2) Sp14


So, advances in technology have brought us the digital camera.  But, just because it is new tech, does that mean digital photography is better than film photography?

Compared to traditional film photography, what are the benefits of digital photography?   In the video below, two benefits are offered.  To that list we can add: (3) digital photography allows for a smaller storage space and (4) digital photography allows for easy editing.*

Note the key photography terms defined in the video?  Watch for the missspelling in the clip?



So, it can be argued that digital is better.  But, how to take a digital photograph?  What is the process? What are the steps in the process?

Technical Steps to Taking a Photograph (camera set-up, etc.)





If you are looking for videos that explain the technical basics of digital photography, I'd recommend Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)).  The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.  Below are a few excerpts from the video series.









*Note that the video is a little dated. He says, for example, that film photography is still the standard. That is no longer the case.




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Basic Tech: How Does a Digital Camera Work? [VID] (U5-P1) Sp14

Let's shift our focus, excuse the pun, from art to tech.
Let's move our discussion from photographic criticism and composition to some basics of the photographic technology.

Let's start with, how does a digital camera work? What are the steps in the process?
Along with this, what are the parts of the camera relevant to a discussion of how it works?



Let's take a look at the process again, in a slightly different way.



If you'd like to learn more, I'd recommend two additional YouTube videos: (1) the more detailed "How Digital Cameras Really Work" and the longer "How Does a Camera Work?".


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






ResearchMethods: Library Research & APA Style: Citing Sources (U4-P3) Sp14

You are working on some research and you want to mention or cite a book in the research paper you are writing.

How do you cite a book using APA-style?


Two Book Examples:

Jewell, T. E., & Hart, W. B. (1996). Interpersonal communication: Student workbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Frey, L. R., Botan, C. H., & Kreps, G. L. (2000). Investigating communication: An introduction to research methods. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.



What about an edited book (APA-style)?

Iyengar, S., & Reeves, R. (Eds.). (1997). Do the media govern? Politicians, voters, and reporters in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.




What about a chapter from an edited book (APA-style)?

Rogers, E. M., & Hart, W. B. (1997). A paradigmatic history of agenda-setting research. In S. Iyengar & R. Reeves (Eds.), Do the media govern? Politicians, voters, and reporters in America (pp. 225-236). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.



What about an article in an academic journal (Gangman-style, I mean APA style)?

Hart, W. B., (1999). Interdisciplinary influences in the study of intercultural relations: A citation analysis of the International Journal of Intercultural Relations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 575-589.

Examples of academic or scholarly journals. Public domain photo.



One of the best online sources for how to cite books, articles, etc. is Purdue University's Research and Citation Resources website.  This site covers APA and other methods.


Note: The above is based on the 6th edition of the APA manual.




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






ResearchMethods: Library Research & APA Style: Finding Books & Journals(U4-P2) Sp14

How to Find References for the Literature Review


How do you find a book in the library?
  1. Keyword list (Most Important Step)
  2. On-line catalog
  3. Record call #, title & other needed info.
    1. Can print out the full citation, 
    2. email to phone, etc.
  4. Retrieve the book

How do you for journal articles?
  1. Keyword list. (Most Important Step)
  2. Identify relevant indexes/databases
  3. Search relevant indexes/databases.
  4. Record full citation.
  5. Check library for journal’s call #
  6. Retrieve article
    1. Either in the library or online


What are some comm journals published by the NCA? What is NCA?
  • Communication Monographs
  • Quarterly Journal of Speech
  • Critical Studies in Mass Communication
  • Communication Education
  • Journal of Applied Communication


What are some comm journals published by the ICA? What is ICA?
  • Human Communication Research
  • Journal of Communication
  • Communication Theory

What are some journals published by the AEJMC?  What is AEJMC?




Some Bonus Tips...

What are some free online sources that may help with gathering background information about your research topic?  How could they be used in research?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






ResearchMethods: Library Research & APA Style: Puzzle Break (U4-P1) Sp14

Our Critical Thinkers Creed
  • We are Open-minded.
    • We seek to understand the other viewpoints.
  • We are Knowledgeable.
    • We offer opinions/claims backed with logic and evidence.
  • We are Mentally Active.
    • We use our intelligence to confront problems.
  • We are Curious.
    • We go beyond superficial explanations. We seek deeper understanding.
  • We are Independent Thinkers.
    • We are not afraid to disagree with the group opinion.
  • We are Creative.
    • We break out of established patterns of thinking and approach situations from innovative directions.
What does the creed mean in research and in our personal lives?
How does it relate to solving puzzles and problems?
To begin with, the critical thinkers creed is a good perspective to have when faced with puzzles and problems.

What would be some other approaches to take when solving puzzles and problems?

Advice for Solving Puzzles and Problems

  • Be confident. Positive attitude.
  • Be creative (“think outside the box”).
  • Try a different approach / Look at it from different viewpoints.
  • Take inventory (write-down) what you know and what you don’t.
  • Never assume.
  • Ask lots of questions.
  • Break big problem into smaller steps.
  • Look for patterns.
Source: Modified from Pat Murphy, et.al. The Brain Explorer (Exploratorium at Home)


Try some puzzles:

Puzzle 1:
"Dr. Arnold Gluck, a psychiatrist in New York, came across the world’s most enthusiastic bookworm during the course for his work. He had been one since infancy. All he ever did was devour books. Yet he never held down a proper job and he didn’t go to the public library. He hadn’t inherited money, in fact he was penniless. So how could he get through all those books?"



Puzzle 2: A Lewis Carroll Puzzle
Lewis Carroll, author (Alice in Wonderland)
a.k.a. Lutwidge Dodgson, mathematician and logician

A STICK I FOUND

"A stick I found that weighed two pound:
I sawed it up one day
In pieces eight of equal weight!
How much did each piece weigh?

(Everybody says ‘a quarter of a pound’, which is wrong.)"




What is the relationship between doing research and solving puzzles?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Thursday, February 13, 2014

GlobalMedia in the News: British Invasion, Media Crackdown in Egypt, Afghan Women Rally + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

EXTRA, EXTRA...
U.S. TV Satirist Talks about Egyptian TV Satirist (from 4/1/13)



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Monday, February 10, 2014

"The Stuart Hall Project (2013) - trailer" (My New Fav YouTube Video) [VID]



I just added this video as a favorite on my YouTube channel.





Originally uploaded to YouTube by BFITrailers.

See Video: The Stuart Hall Project (2013) - trailer

Description: "Released on BFI DVD on 20 January 2014 http://bit.ly/1ghdQpx Also available on BFI player. A John Akomfrah film about revolution, politics, culture and the New Left experience."



Subscribe to my YouTube Channel.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Saturday, February 8, 2014

GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Why Study Intercultural Com? (U4-P7) Sp14


imperative: "not to be avoided or evaded." (Merriam-Webster's)

So an imperative is something that can't be avoided.

Why study intercultural communication?  Because we can't avoid it.  For example, continuing advances in communication and transportation technologies will mean more and more people from different cultures will come in contact.

  • Technological imperative
    • Communication Technology
    • Transportation Technology
  • Demographical imperative
    • U.S. Demographics (e.g., raise in Hispanic pop.)
    • Immigration
  • Economic imperative (globalization)
  • Peace imperative
  • Self-awareness imperative
  • Ethical imperative

Why is it important to understand intercultural communication when studying development and global communication?  What is the relationship?


Based on Martin & Nakayama



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: "The Ugly American" (U4-P6) [VID] Sp14

Counterproductive attitudes that Americans can have about people from other countries?*
  • "Foreigners coming to live in the U.S. should adapt American ways."
  • "Asians do many things backwards."
  • "Much of the world’s population remains underdeveloped because they don’t take the initiative to develop themselves."
  • "Americans have been very generous in teaching other people how to do things the right way."
  • "English should be accepted as the universal language."

Q: Central theme in the counterproductive attitudes expressed above?
A: Ethnocentrism: a belief that your group's ways are the best ways.

Imagine a person working in development communication who heads into a development project abroad with the above attitudes. How would things work out?



The phrase "ugly American" comes, in part, from a 1958 novel about an American who travels abroad and expresses an ethnocentric attitude.  The novel was also made into a 1963 film staring Marlon Brando.




Now to another film.  How does Disney's Pocahontas fit into this discussion?

Do you spot the ethnocentric attitude from John Smith in this Pocahontas clip?
(If the video clip does not work, then the Disney's Pocahontas film can be found on sites like Netflix.  If you find the full film see the segment from about 35:45 to about 40:00.)



Given the similarity between Pocahontas and Avatar (see below), then you might explore the "ugly Earthling" aspects of Avatar.  Can you think of other related films?




* Of course, this could go the other way. People in other countries can have ethnocentric views toward the U.S. --  The ugly _____.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Hofstede’s Dimensions of Value Orientation (U4-P5) Sp14


Geert Hofstede during the 1980s surveyed over 100,000 workers in multinational corporations in forty countries.

He found 4 main dimensions along which countries/cultures differ. Each country was ranked according to his dimensions.

  • 1. Individualism - Collectivism
    • I versus We
    • e.g., “Squeaking wheel gets the greasy.”
    • e.g., “The nail that sticks up gets pounded down.”
    • Indiv. (e.g., U.S. & Australia) <--------> Coll (e.g., Taiwan & Peru)
  • 2. Uncertainty Avoidance
    • The extent to which a culture feels threatened by the unknown.
    • Hi-U.A. cultures try to avoid uncertainty.
    • Hi UA (e.g., Greece & Japan) <---> Low UA (e.g. U.S. & Denmark )
  • 3. Power Distance
    • The extent to which a culture accepts inequality.
    • Hi-P.D. cultures accept inequality in relationships.
    • Hi PD (e.g. Philippines & India) <----> Low PD (e.g. Sweden & N.Z.)
  • 4. Masculinity and Femininity
    • Masculinity = assertiveness, ambition, possessions...
    • Femininity = caring and nurturing...
    • M (e.g., Japan & Italy) <-----------> F (e.g., Norway & Denmark)




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Cultural Values (U4-P4) Sp14


What are values?

"Social principles, goals, or standards accepted by persons in a culture. They are learned by contacts with the family, teachers, and religious leaders. The media also may influence one’s value system."

Or what are the things that a culture finds valuable, important.

Money?   Family?





















What are your values?  Where did you get them?  Are there some values more important than others?  What is your most important value?  Interacted with somebody who has a different set of values?




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: A Model of Intercultural Com (U4-P3) Sp14



What is the process?  What are the parts of the process of intercultural communication?
In this model, the goal is effective intercultural communication, but what are some of the barriers that can cause problems?  Prejudice?  Stereotypes?  Discrimination?  Differences in language?  Others?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Definitions and Metaphors for Culture (U4-P2) Sp14


What is culture?

There are hundreds of definitions of culture in the literature.
Let's use this one:

Culture is a set of shared knowledge that influences a particular group of people’s behavior (Hart).


Metaphors of Culture
  • Hofstede's Computer Metaphor:
    • Culture is the software of the mind.
    • We are programmed by our experiences.
  • Hofstede's Game Metaphor:
    • Culture is "the unwritten rules of the social game."
  • The Iceberg Metaphor of Culture
    • "Above the waterline—what we can see; behaviors that are visible.
    • Below the waterline—what we cannot see; behaviors that are not visible or that do not make sense."

File:Iceberg.jpg
Created by Uwe Kils 
















































Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Tower of Babel (U4-P1) Sp14


File:Brueghel-tower-of-babel.jpg
The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563). Image in the public domain.

The image above depicts the Biblical story of how different languages and cultures came to be.
So, what is the story and what does it have to do with intercultural communication?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Friday, February 7, 2014

DigPhotog: Writing Captions in Photojournalism (U4-P3) Sp14

Richard Lee Bland Newspaper Photo
Source
They say that a picture is worth a thousand words.

If that is true for news photographs, then the caption (the verbal description) for the photograph, is like the lead to the thousand word story.

In a news article, the first few sentences of the story is the lead. The lead tells the reader the who, what, when, where, why and how of the story. Packed into the lead is quick overview of the whole news story.*


So, as Kobre' points out in his book, Photojournalism: The Professionals' Approach, a caption should tell the reader/viewer the who, what, when, where, why and how of the photograph.  The caption serves the same purpose as a lead in a written news story. [If your interest is specifically in photojournalism, I'd strongly recommend Kobre's book.]

The 5 W's and the H of a news story (or in this case, a news photograph):
  • Who - who is the news event about, who is in the photo?
  • What - what happened in the news event, what is happening in the photo?
  • When - when did the news event happen, when was the photo taken?
  • Where - where did the news event happen, where was the photo taken?
  • Why (1) - why did the news event happen, what happened that lead to the photograph, what happened before?
  • Why (2) - what is the significance of the news event, why is it important to us, what is going to happen after this event?
  • How - how did the event happen?

So, a lead in a written news story should answer the who, what, when, where and how of the new event and sometimes it'll address the why and how.

Now, if a caption of a news photograph is like the lead of a news story, then what does a caption include.

The Associated Press recommends a caption should contain two concise sentences. The first sentence of the caption should include the who, what, when and where.  The second sentence should provide the background information on the how and the why, especially the significance of the news event.

Tip: Start the first sentence with the most important thing to your audience.  If who is important, then start with who.  For example, if a celebrity is the who, then you'll probably want to start your sentence with that person's name. If the where is important, then start your first sentence with where.  For example, if a disease is breaking out is a certain area, then the location or where, is probably more important.

Check out AP's Top Photos of the Week page for current examples of news photographs and their captions. Hover the mouse over the photos to see the captions.  Do the AP photographers and photo editors practice what the AP style guidelines recommend?

Can you write a caption for a new photo?  Find some photos you know something about, perhaps from the AP link above or this link, and see if you can write a caption for the photo.  Practice. practice, practice.


* We're especially talking about hard news stories here.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: An Intro to Photojournalism (U4-P2) [VID] Sp14


The following videos provide a good overview of photojournalism from rules and tips to what it is like to be a photojournalist.

First, let's get a feel for what it is like to be a photojournalist.

"A Day in the Life of a Photojournalist"


"Insight into Photojournalism - David Dare Parker" - Freelance Photojournalist - The International Angle



Current news about photojournalist



In the "Photojournalism Tutorial" video below pay close attention to (1) the definition of photojournalism, (2) the three key rules of journalism/photojournalism, (3) the rules of the field and (4) the tips for being a good photojournalist.

"Photojournalism Tutorial"




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Rules of Composition: Not Just for Still Photography -- How to Use in Video (U4-P1) [VID] Sp14


The "rules" of composition that you learn for still photography can also be used in your video work.  After you learned about composition in still photography (rule of thirds, framing, etc.), did you start to spot those same rules being used in your favorite TV show or movie?  If not, look for it the next time you are watching TV or a movie.

Take, for example, the Tarantino film, Kill Bill.


Just focus on the rule of thirds.  How often do you see the rule of thirds?  How is it used?




Now, you try it.  Go to YouTube (or another video source) and look for clips of a favorite movie.  See how many rules of composition you see being used.  Besides the rule of thirds, what else do you see?  Framing?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Thursday, February 6, 2014

GlobalMedia in the News: Rodman, Bieber, the Super Bowl, Chinese New Years, K-Pop + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Sunday, February 2, 2014

GlobalMedia: Music, MTV & Global Media: Global Media, Music & the Future (U3-P5) Sp14

Global Media, Music and the Future

Crother's Emerging Developments especially relevant to music

  • The global demand for other American products, like clothing styles and brands, restaurants and sports, is also likely to grow over time.
  • Social networking will continue to be a platform for the spread of information, products, cultural styles, and political and social change around the world.
  • The YouTube-ification of entertainment is likely to expand.
  • Challenges to American movies, music, and television programs will arise for a variety of economic, political, and cultural reasons, leading to new alliances seeking to limit the effects of American popular culture within their communities.
  • Increased exposure to American popular culture will encourage the development of hybrid forms that have value to local cultures.
  • Just as other cultures can adopt and integrate American programming, American culture can adapt and integrate entertainment forms originated elsewhere.
  • Pop cultural interchanges can create economic and cultural bonds among people that may not be represented by political institutions.
  • American popular culture may facilitate the emergence of a global culture, at least to a limited extent.
  • Cultural integration is more likely within and among components of the Global North than it is within and among the Global South, thereby deepening the gap between north and south.
  • Resistance to the spread of American popular culture, whether organized by states or by citizens, is likely to be hard.
  • Nothing is inevitable about globalization and American popular culture.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Music, MTV & Global Media: Measuring the Spread of American Music (U3-P4) Sp14

So, if American music contains American values and if said music may cause changes in the cultures of other countries, then just how widespread is American music?

How would you measure how widespread?  What evidence would you give?

Ways to Assess the Preeminence of American Music in World Entertainment


  1. "A review of the top-selling albums of all time suggests the dominance of American music, for example. As of November 2011, there were twenty-seven albums that had sold at least fifteen million copies worldwide, and sixteen were the product of undeniably American acts. The Eagles’ Their Greatest Hits is tied with Michael Jackson’s Thriller for the number one selling album of all time, at twenty-nine million sales."
  2. "Similar evidence for American music prominence can be found in considering the individual artists and groups in terms of their certified global record sales. The most successful musical act of all time, for example, is not American: it is The Beatles, with 177 million album sales in their history."  However most other top selling artists and groups are American.
  3. "The dominance of American rock, country, and hip-hop is perhaps most evident in the direct linkage of music and television created in 1981 with the formation of the cable network MTV, Music Television. In their endless search for venues... An idea this profitable was sure to spread, and spread it did. Just ten years after its creation, MTV was available in 201 million households in seventy-seven countries ranging from Australia to Brazil to Hong Kong. MTV Europe grew from 3 million households in 1988 to 14 million in 1991 and then 37 million in 1992."

How else would you measure the spread of American music?  What evidence would you give?

International Charts (Billboard)




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






GlobalMedia: Music, MTV & Global Media: American Culture in Country, Rock and Hip-Hop (U3-P3) Sp14

According to Crothers the first step in understanding the effects that American popular culture artifacts may have on other cultures is to identify the American cultural values in the artifacts.

What is the culture hidden in the popular music genres. Crothers covers three prominent American music genres: country, rock and hip-hop and also identifies the cultural values in the music.


Do you agree with Crothers' analysis?

Country Music

"Country has long prided itself on reflecting the lives of real people, particularly working-class, rural Americans. Country’s topics have chronicled the struggles of the individual as he or she tries to make it in a dead-end job, in a difficult marriage, or even through addiction to drugs or alcohol."


"Additionally, country regularly sings the virtues of hard work, traditional love, the glory of a loving family, and unabashed patriotism. The real America, country seems to say, is the America in which people struggle but take responsibility for their personal fates. Americans fight for their honor and dignity as ends all their own."


Rock Music

"At its heart were energy, excitement, and rebellion. Rock musicians tapped into their fans’ adolescent dreams".

"Rock, after all, expresses rebellion, energy, and individualism—as do teenagers. The causality seemed self-evident: children who were once compliant and sweet."


Hip-Hop Music

"If country celebrated traditional values and patriotism, and rock and roll energized the ambitions of a generation to change the world, hip-hop expressed the anger and frustration of a long-repressed community that had many grievances in what it described as a racist America."

"Hip-hop also reflected a raw form of street sexuality in which suggestive language was common. Other performers offered explicit accounts of their sexual desires and fantasies."




Do you agree with Crothers' analysis?  What would you change or add?  Support your argument.

So, if we can agree that "hidden" in the music are certain American cultural values, then so what?  Why is that important?  What's this have to do with the effects thing discussed earlier?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.