Sunday, March 30, 2014

ResearchMethods: Research Ethics: Ethics Questions a Researcher Should Ask (U9-P2) Sp14

Some Ethics Questions a Researcher Should Ask

1) Do subjects have free choice?





  • Free choice

    • Informed consent
    • Briefing/Debriefing - clear up any deception

    2) Are subjects shown respect?




  • Respect - e.g. sexism, racism


  • 3) Are subjects compensated in some way for their time and effort?




  • Compensation

    • Manus manum lavat = “one hand washes the other”

    4) Are the data collected kept safe and carefully analyzed?




  • When analyzing data--

    • Careful data handing
    • Careful data analysis

    5) Are data made available to other researchers?




  • When reporting data--

    • Keep data and make data available, if asked.

    6) What are the effects of your research on others after it is reported?  Does good?  Harm?




  • Using results

    • Consider the effects of research on those who use the results or are affected by them.


    A Test: Some Cases: What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important?


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    ResearchMethods: Research Ethics: Tuskegee, Lacks, Milgram & Zimbardo (U9-P1) Sp14 [VID]


    Research ethics are the moral principles and rules that guide a researcher’s actions.

    Why talk about research ethics?  What is the need?

    To answer that question, let's look at some important research studies from the past.
    When watching these clips ask yourself what ethical concerns are raised in doing this research.

    1) Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment




    2) The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks




    3 & 4) Milgram's Authority Study & The Stanford Prison Experiment
    (Watch from 0:00 to about 6:30)



    What are the ethical concerns with the research that Milgram and Zimbardo did? Would you feel comfortable doing this research? Would such research be allowed today?


    O.K., now that you have some knowledge of these past experiments do you have an answer to the questions asked earlier?  Why talk about research ethics?  What is the need?


    What is the role of university research review boards?

    Human Subjects Review Board:
    “It is university policy that all projects involving risk to human subjects must be approved by the University Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects for Funded Research. Approval is based on established university, state and sponsoring agency guidelines for the protection of the rights and welfare of subjects at risk”

    Why have IRBs?


    What are some of the regulations regarding research and IRBs?


    So, getting IRB approval would be a time-consuming task for researchers, yes?

    Should researchers have more IRB discretion?



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    DigPhotog: Controlling Lighting: What is HDR photography and what is it good for? [VID] (U8-P2) Sp14

    What does HDR stand for? What is a HDR photo? What type of photography is HDR good for?  What apps (software) are needed?

    How To: HDR photography for iPhone and Android (CNET TV)



    What is bracketing and what does it have to do with HDR photos?


    Secrets of Amazing HDR Photography (revision3)
    See the first 5 minutes or so.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


    Check out some fine HDR photos at BlametheMonkey.com.  When looking at the photos on this site slide the vertical line back and forth to see the standard version of the photo vs. the HDR version.  
    Also see comparisons at Tim Clarke's site.  What is the difference between a normal photo and a HDR photo?  What preferences do you have?  Do you like HDR photos?  Pros and cons of HDR?


    Quick HDR Landscape Tutorial
    Play from 0:00 to 2:15.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


    What is spot metering and what does it have to do with HDR photography?



    Pro HDR App Tutorial on iPhone 4 (with Example Images!)


    Pro-HDR - an app that allows you to take HDR photos.
    Note: Try the free version first, if you can find it.

    Another HDR app that is currently available as a free version is HDR FX Photo Editor (Free) which is available on Android and iOS.




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    DigPhotog: Controlling Lighting: White Balance (U8-P1) Sp14


    Photo credit: Anthony Quintano (cc)
    Ever taken a photo like the one to the right where the photo looks a little yellowish?  This is a lighting problem. More specifically, this is a white balance problem.

    Miokte defines white balance as "the camera setting used to correct any subtle color shifts in an image that sometimes occur in different kinds of light.  The white balance setting can be set by either the camera or the photographer, depending on the camera model."

    Whenever you take a photograph and you have your camera set on automatic, your camera looks out into the world and makes decisions about what settings to use for ISO, shutter speed and f-stop.  We've discussed this previously.  Along with ISO, shutter speed and f-stop, the camera also makes decisions about the white balance.  And, sometimes it makes a good decision and sometimes it makes a bad decision (like in the photo above).  When your camera can't seem to get it right, that is the time for you to step in and change the white balance yourself.  But, how?  Why?




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    Friday, March 28, 2014

    Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    Time played: 52 mins


    255 hours total





    To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

    If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

    Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

    Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

    If you share some similar interests, let me know.

    Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    Thursday, March 27, 2014

    GlobalMedia in the News: Satellites & Sovereignty, Turkey & Twitter + MORE [VID]


    NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

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    Wednesday, March 26, 2014

    Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    Time played: 1 hr


    254 hours total





    To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

    If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

    Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

    Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

    If you share some similar interests, let me know.

    Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    Tuesday, March 25, 2014

    DigPhotog: News & Tips - Viral War Photo, Gay Wedding Photography, Vivian Maier, Street Portraits + MORE [VID]



    NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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    ResearchMethods: Media Research News: Twitter TV, Video Game Violence, Tyson's Cosmos, Diversity in Research + MORE


    NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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    Sunday, March 23, 2014

    DigPhotog: Exposure and Histograms (U7-P2) Sp14


    In the field of statistics, a histogram is "a graphical representation of the distribution of data."  The histogram below shows the distribution of black cherry trees according to height.  Note that there are many trees between 70 and 80 inches tall and a few that are 60-65 inches tall and even fewer that are 85-90 inches tall.













    Graphic credit: Mwtoews. Used under Creative Commons

    In the field of photography, a histogram is similar, it is a graphical representation of data.  But, what data?
    A histogram for a photograph is "a graphical representation of the tonal distribution in a digital image.  It plots the number of pixels for each tonal value."  The tones in a photography range from shadows (the darker areas or pixels) to midtones (grey areas or pixels) to highlights (the white or bright areas of the photograph).
    A photograph which is underexposed, for example, would have lots of shadow.

    For visuals and further discussion see the videos below.



    A key question: How could you use a histogram to determine if your photos have proper exposure?




    A good app for showing the histogram all both iOS and Android is called PicsPlay.  Get the free version first.



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    DigPhotog: "Blurry" Background Photos - Depth of Field, etc. (U7-P1) [VID] Sp14

    You like those "blurry" background photos?  Would you like to be able to take this type of photo?

    The beauty of Depth of Field
    Photo by yashh .   Used under Creative Commons.

    If so, you'll need to control the depth of field in your photograph and in order to control depth of field, you'll need to better understand aperture.



    For a partial introduction to depth of field and some other topcis, check out the following video excerpt from Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)).  The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.




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    ResearchMethods: Validity, Reliability, Etc.: Internal and ExternalValidity + Sampling (U8-P1) Sp14

    What are internal and external validity?

    Is it a valid study? Not: Is it a valid instrument?




    Internal validity: Are the conclusions to be trusted for the particular study?





    External validity: To whom do the conclusions apply? Generalizability of findings








    If something goes wrong in a study, who can you blame it on?  And you can't blame it on the alcohol.  :)


    What are some threats to a study’s internal validity?
    • Threats due to researcher (e.g., influence results)
    • Threats due to how research is conducted (e.g., inaccurate, inconsistent research)
    • Threats due to research subjects
      • Hawthorne effect
      • mortality - loosing people from a study (due to death, etc.)
      • maturation - internal change explains behavior


    Example: 4 year study of film viewing and levels of prejudice. Subjects= college students.
    See any possible threats to internal validity?




    What are some threats to a study’s external validity?
    • Research procedures don’t reflect everyday life
      • ecological validity
    • Different finding, same sample
      • replication is important
    • Poor sampling


    Any problems with studies done at universities?
    Generalizability?



    Sampling

    Sampling is the process of selecting subjects for a study.
    Why sample?  The population you are studying is too large to study, so you have to study just a part of that population (a sample).

    What could be some problems with sampling (examples of poor sampling)?  Bias sample.


    You want to use random sampling when you can.  In random sampling all have an equal chance of getting into sample








    Types of Samples:

    • Simple
      • assigned #, random # chosen
    • Systematic
      • start at random pt., choose every nth subject from list of population
    • Stratified
      • categories population according a variable studied, and then randomly choose from the categories...see text e.g.!





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    GlobalMedia: International Journalism: The CNN Effect & the Social Media Effect [VID] (U8-P2)


    In his book, Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends, Thomas McPhail defines the CNN effect as "the process by which the coverage of a foreign event by CNN causes that event to be a primary concern for its audience, which in turn forces the federal government to act."  One could add to the U.S. government, then as part of its foreign policy, may influence foreign governments/peoples through direct action (e.g., war) or through sanctions.  See video clip.



    Does CNN still have this influence on foreign policy?  Any other news networks, U.S. or otherwise, have this influence?  Any other form of media now has this influence?  Think: Arab Spring (see first 2 minutes).  Think: Kony2012 (see short clip).  What role does social media play in shaping foreign policy?  How's that process work?

    The "social media effect" is defined here as the process by which the coverage of an event on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube  etc. causes that event to be a primary concern for its audiences around the world, which in turn forces foreign governments to act, thus further influencing the event.

    See clip below for more the idea of social media effect.




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    GlobalMedia: International Journalism: Rodman, North Korea & Theories of the Press (U8-P1)


    What are your reactions to Rodman talking with Kim Jong-un first in 2013.  Rodman continues his relationship with the North Korean leader.

    Example of ping-pong diplomacy? Chinese 'ping-pong diplomacy' player dies.  A better term might be sports diplomacy?

    What type of press system does North Korea have?  What is the North Korean media like?

    Things changing in N. Korea? Live From North Korea, An Instagram Feed



    In the late 1950s Siebert, Peterson and Schramm (Wilbur) identified four types of press systems that existed in countries up until the 1950s.

    They published their findings in their book titled Four Theories of the Press: The Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility and Soviet Communist Concepts of What the Press Should Be and Do (Illini Books)

    In the book they highlight the relationship between the form of government that a nation has and the press that operates within it.



    The four theories:

    1. Authoritarian
      1. Purpose of the Press: To serve and promote the government/rulers
      2. Ownership of Press: private or public
      3. Notes/Examples: England/Western European countries 19th century and before; Afghanistan under the Taliban
    2. Soviet-Communist
      1. Purpose of the Press: To serve and promote the government or the Communist party
      2. Ownership of Press: public
      3. Notes/Examples: Soviet Union and other communist countries
    3. Libertarian
      1. Purpose of the Press: To inform (i.e., present the facts) and monitor the government
      2. Ownership of Press: Mostly private
      3. Notes/Examples: England
    4. Social Responsibility
      1. Purpose: To monitor the government.  While another purpose is to inform (i.e., present the facts to) the citizens, this press system goes beyond just presenting the facts to promoting understanding and discussion/debate related to those facts.  
      2. Ownership of Press: Private
      3. Notes/Examples: U.S., Canada

    What would it be like being a journalism student or a journalist working in these different press systems?

    Do you think that these four theories still adequately describe the types of press systems that operate in the countries of today?  Does, for example, the introduction of social media, require modifications to the four theories?

    The work of Siebert, Peterson and Schramm has received criticism and updating.  If you are interested, see for example the following books.


    Last Rights: Revisting Four Theories of the Press (History of Communication)

    Normative Theories of the Media: Journalism in Democratic Societies (History of Communication)





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    Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent some time playing Call of Duty: Black Ops (360).




    Time played: 53 mins


    122 hours total





    To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

    If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

    Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

    Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

    If you share some similar interests, let me know.

    Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    Saturday, March 22, 2014

    Game Research: WilliamHartPhD just came up for air from a crazy session of Call of Duty: Black Ops (360).


    WilliamHartPhD just came up for air from a crazy session of Call of Duty: Black Ops (360).


    Time played: 24 hrs


    121 hours total





    To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

    If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

    Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

    Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

    If you share some similar interests, let me know.

    Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    Thursday, March 20, 2014

    GlobalMedia in the News: RT-YT Censorship, Satellite Images of Flight 370, the Peace Corp + MORE [VID]



    NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

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    Wednesday, March 19, 2014

    Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    Time played: 53 mins


    253 hours total





    To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

    If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

    Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

    Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

    If you share some similar interests, let me know.

    Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    Game Research: WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    WilliamHartPhD spent a chunk of time playing Minecraft (XBLA).


    Time played: 2 hrs


    252 hours total





    To see what other games I'm currently playing for research purposes (and fun), check out my Now Playing page on Gamespot or the current activity on my Raptr wall.

    If you'd like to know about my videogame research, let me know. I do research on adaptation games (i.e., games adapted from novels or films) and mystery/detective games. I'm working on my own detective game now.

    Also see: My Xbox profile | My Steam profile | My Playfire profile | My Gamespot profile

    Or see my complete game collection on Gamespot.

    If you share some similar interests, let me know.

    Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog. See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    Tuesday, March 18, 2014

    DigPhotog: News & Tips - War on Photography, Gigapixels, Passion in Photography + MORE [VID]


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    ResearchMethods: Validity, Reliability, Etc.: Definitions (Written and Visual) (U7-P1) Sp14

    You operationalize your variables in order to measure them.
    So, now let's talk about measurement and related concepts.

    When measuring your variables you may ask yourself...
    Is my measure “on target”?
    Do my measures “cluster together”?

    But what does that mean?

    What we are talking about is validity and reliability.

    Back to measuring prejudice in people. How would you do that? A survey? What would the questions be on the survey?  Your measure of prejudice needs to be valid and reliable measures.  Are you sure they are valid and reliable?


    Validity: “the extent that scales or questions do measure what they are thought to measure”(Stacks & Hocking).





    Or think or a bathroom scale.  What does it mean to say a bathroom scale is valid or not?


    2012_May_03_Bathroom Scale_008
    Photo by elcamino73. Used under Creative Commons.



    Reliability: “the extent to which measurement yields numbers (data) are consistent, stable, and dependable.” (Stacks & Hocking).





































    What about a bathroom scale and reliability?  What does it mean to say that a bathroom scale is reliable?



    2012_May_03_Bathroom Scale_008
    Photo by elcamino73. Used under Creative Commons.




    Can an instrument can be reliable, but not valid. That is, cluster together, but not be on target?




















    An Example

    Let's say we are interested in the topic of communication apprehension.  More specifically, we are interested in the relationship between gender and communication apprehension.  Do men or women have higher levels of communication apprehension?  How would we go about answering that question?

    How would we measure communication apprehension in our subjects (the people we are studying)?  We could observe.  What about a survey?  Yeah, let's do a survey.  Something like below.

    -------------------------------------
    Conversation Apprehension Scale

    1. While participating in a conversation with a new acquaintance, I feel very nervous.
    Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

    2. I have no fear of speaking up in conversations.
    Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

    3. Ordinarily I am very tense and nervous in conversations.
    Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

    4. Ordinarily I am very calm and relaxed in conversations.
    Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

    ------------------------------------


    Think of this survey as a measuring instrument, just like a bathroom scale. The bathroom scale measures your weight and this survey would measure your communication apprehension.

    Does our instrument (the above survey) have good measurement validity and measurement reliability? How would you determine that?

    Measurement validity:
    “the extent to which researchers are actually measuring the concepts they intend to measure”(FBFK)
    Do the instruments give accurate/true readings?

    Measurement reliability:
    “the extent to which measurements of a variable are consistent and trustworthy”(FBFK)
    Do the instruments continue to give the same readings every time they are used?


    What are the procedures for checking an instrument’s reliability?

    Similar results every time?
    0% = Not reliable to 100% highly reliable

    Three Ways to Check Instrument’s Reliability
    1. Test and retest it.
    2. Test, change wording slightly, retest.
    3. Compare 1/2 items to the other 1/2

    3 options, Not step-by-step
    Which option is best?  Costs and benefits?



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    Monday, March 17, 2014

    DigPhotog: Online Camera Simulators to Help Understand Aperture, Shutter Speed, etc. (U6-P2) Fa14


    There are two very useful online camera simulators that I'd recommend to help you get a better understanding of aperture, shutter speed and other aspects of photography.

    1. Start with Photonhead's "SimCam - Shutter and Aperture" page. It'll allow you to control a few features of the camera.  What settings would get you those blurry background photos?  Why?   Also, try out the film speed or ISO simulator.  Make changes in the settings and then take the photo (i.e. click on "shoot it").  Before clicking the shoot it button make a guess on what the new photo will look like.  Work with the simulations until your guess match the resulting photo.


    2. Also, try CameraSim.com. Once you've gotten comfortable for Photonheads camera simulator, then move on to this more complicated simulator.  You can go directly to the site or try the embed below.




    In addition to adjusting the shutter, aperture and mode, try adjusting the distance you are to the child and also zoom in or zoom out with the focal length setting.

    When you are working with both of these simulators, it is important that after you change some settings and before you press the click button, that you make a guess as to what you think the simulated photograph will look like. Only stop messing with these simulators, once you get all your guesses right.


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    GlobalMedia: Development Communication (cont'd): Entertainment Education (U7-P1) Sp14


    The idea of presenting a development message within a fictional program is the type of development communication that is called entertainment education.  The World Bank is a multinational organization that uses entertainment education in their work.  See the video below for examples and background information.




    Below is another example of entertainment education.  Tim Reid, noted Norfolk State University alumnus and actor/director/producer, and NSU students (Maryna Kariuk and Shimira Cole) were involved in the making of "Hear My Son".  How exactly is this an example of entertainment education?


    Hear My Son from Legacy Media Institute on Vimeo.


    Interested in learning more about entertainment education, I'd recommend starting with a book edited by Arvind Singhal, Michael J. Cody, Everett M. Rogers and Miguel Sabido called
    Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice (Routledge Communication Series)





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    Thursday, March 6, 2014

    GlobalMedia in the News: Worldly Hipster Journalists, Baseball in Brazil, RT TV censorship + MORE [VID]


    NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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    See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    Wednesday, March 5, 2014

    DigPhotog: News & Tips - Famous Oscar Selfie, "Through a Lens Darkly" + MORE [VID]


    NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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    See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






    ResearchMethods: Media Research News: Bedroom TVs, Socially Isolating iPods + MORE


    NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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    Monday, March 3, 2014

    GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Diffusion of Innovations (U6-P3) Sp14


    Everett Rogers
    Discuss Diffusion of Innovations as an Approach to Development.

    Everett Rogers wrote Diffusion of Innovations (1962, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2003).

    What is an innovation?
    • An idea, object or practice...
    • Perceived as new...
    • By an individual or organization.


    What is the diffusion of innovations?
    • An innovation ...
    • Communicated via channels...
    • Over time...
    • Among the members of a social system.




    CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATIONS
    The characteristics (or attributes) of innovations, as perceived by individuals, help to explain their rate of adoption.  Characteristics of innovations are one important set of variables influencing the rate of adoption.

    1. Relative Advantage
      1. Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes
      2. e.g. economic profitability, decrease in discomfort, savings in time and effort, immediacy of reward
    2. Compatibility
      1. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.
      2. Example: rap music and the role of MTV in making rap accessible and acceptable for all youth (Black & White).
    3. Complexity
      1. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use.
      2. Example: DOS vs. Windows
    4. Trialability
      1. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis.
    5. Observability
      1. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.
      2. Examples: solar panels & DBS, PrimeStar, DISH and the like

    Given the above, how could diffusion of innovations (a communication theory) be used in development work?   How could diffusion of innovations be used to fight a health issue in a community or developing nation?


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    GlobalMedia: Development Communication: A History (Marshall Plan, etc.) (U6-P2) Sp14


    "Uncle" Wilbur
    A Historical Sketch of Development Communication

    First a quick overview...

    Dr. Wilbur Schramm
    Founder of the social science study of communication (late 40s-50s) and key founder of development communication.
    • 1950s: 
      • Post-WWII & Cold War -- Newly independent nations struggling (the “terrible ascent”)
    • 1960s: 
      • Schramm: How to help them? His answer: w/ mass media - “the great multiplier.” Need to bring in mass media technology.
    • 1970s: 
      • Many countries implemented mass media programs.
    • 1980s: 
      • 1) Concern with “Neo-imperialism”
      • Hamid Mowlana
      • 2) Mowlana: users of mass media blind to the importance of traditional forms of communication in some societies/cultures. “Technology vs. Tradition” (Mowlana)
    • 1990s: 
      • Use of mass media to aid in development, but w/ caution regarding culture. Example: AIDS/HIV education in radio program in Tanzania & TV soap opera in China (Rogers)
    • 2000s: 
      • New issues and use of new communication technologies
    (Sources: based on Mowlana, 1996, 1997, Stevenson, 1993, Rogers, 1997)



    Now back to the 40s and 50s...

    Coming out of World War II the U.S. was in good shape (economically, politically, etc.), but many of the nations of Europe faced problems.

    To get a sense of the problem faces see CNN Perspectives Presents Cold War. (See also background info on this CNN series.)

    Some of the series is available online.  As you watch the clips below pay close attention to the Marshall Plan.  What relationship does it have to development communication?

    U.S. provided $$ and expertise in "reconstructing" Europe. U.S. foreign policy (lead by Truman) changed isolationism to “active leadership.” The U.S. offered the Marshall Plan* (more on Marshall Plan from CNN).

    See the clips 0:00 to 1:50 and from 20:28 to 27:52




    Why should the U.S. help European countries after WWII?

    1. humanitarian concerns (White Man’s Burden again?)
    2. stop spread of communism!

    Truman Doctrine: to defend freedom & democracy worldwide.

    Edward T. Hall
    After reconstructing Europe Truman offered the world “the benefits of our [U.S.] scientific advances and industrial progress… for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.”

    This was called the Point Four Program. (Director, Edward Hall)
    One of the key tasks taken on by Hall was teaching U.S. diplomats intercultural communication skills. The formal study of intercultural communication can be traced back to Hall and this program.  Hall has been called the founding father of intercultural communication study.

    The government lacked knowledge on how to develop nations, so they turned to academia. Development theories were developed in economics, psychology, political science, sociology, and communication. For example, Wilbur Schramm offered his theory/approach to development.  By the mid-70s, development programs were recognized an ineffective. Schramm, Rogers and others recognized the faults.

    Everett M. Rogers
    What was wrong? According to Rogers (1976)
    The old way of doing development programs had the following errors:

    1. They assume infinite economic growth, ignore problems like population growth, pollution, etc., and do not take into account the "quality of life."
    2. They emphasize technology and capital rather than labor, thus encouraging economic dependence on advanced countries. Low priority to agriculture.
    3. It blames the developing countries for their failings, ignoring external factors beyond their control.
    4. It takes an ethnocentric (Western) bias by emphasizing the modernization of "traditional" individuals.


    (Sources: International Encyclopedia of Communication, "Development Communication," 1989; "Marshall Plan" Britannica Online.].).



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    GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Some Key Terms (U6-P1) Sp14



    Define/explain the terms development, development communication and development journalism.


    Development: "purposive changes undertaken in a society to achieve what may be regarded generally as a different ('improved') state of social and economic affairs"(Hern├índez-Ramos & Schramm, 1989).


    Development projects typically focus on certain areas/issue of a society (e.g. agriculture, health, nutrition, family planning, women's empowerment, etc.)

    Development communication: the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society.


    Development journalism: a 'branch' of development communication in which news media are used.
    Journalism: "the collection and editing of news for presentation through the media"(M-W Dictionary)



    If you had lots of money (through a grant, etc.) and you wanted to do good in the world, what would you do?  If you wanted to help with some health issue in another country, what would you do?
    If you wanted to help and you wanted to put your media knowledge and media skills to use, what would you do?




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    DigPhotog: Controlling Light (F-Stops, Shutter Speed, ISO, etc.) (U6-P1) [VID] Sp14


    As a photographer, your task is to control lightYou are a master of light.

    When you turn that dial from "auto" to "manual", you are taking control of the light coming into your camera.  Two key ways of controlling the amount of light coming into your camera are by setting the f-stop and the shutter speed.

    For a partial introduction to f-stops and shutter speed, check out the following video excerpt from Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)). The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.




    F-stops and shutter speeds are not the only ways you can control light.  You can adjust the ISO settings or use flash, for example.  You can adjust f-stops, shutter speeds, ISO, flash, etc. to get just the right amount of light into your camera -- that perfect exposure.



    "Let's Get Techie" does a good job of adding some further details.  Note the exposure triangle.




    There are apps that allow you to see the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO settings for your photographs.  If you recall, the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO data and other data (e.g., date, time, GPS location) is what is called EXIF data.  For android devices one EXIF viewer app is Simple Exif Viewer.  For iOS devices an EXIF viewer app is Exif Viewer. A Google search will also show EXIF viewers for laptops and desktops.

    Use one of the EXIF viewers and check the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO settings for your photographs. See if the settings or values make sense.  For example, would an ISO setting/value of 800 for an indoor photo make sense?  Why?   Would a shutter speed of 1/2 second for a blurry sports photo make sense?  Why?



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