Thursday, October 30, 2014

MassMedia in the News: Advertising & PR: #Gamergate, Ello, Lincoln Ad Spoof + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

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Wednesday, October 29, 2014

MediaTech in the News: Another Jobs Movie? Bezos=Visionary? Grandma Blocks Wifi? + MORE [VID]

NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Tuesday, October 28, 2014

InterculturalCom in the News: Racist Cartoons & Costumes, 'Dear White People', Misogyny & #GamerGate, + MORE [VID]



NOTEIf for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).



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Monday, October 27, 2014

DigPhotog: News & Tips - Embedded Photogs, Halloween Pix & Donut Selfies + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Sunday, October 26, 2014

MassMedia: Advertising & PR: The A.I.D.A. Formula for Writing Commercials (U8-P2) [VID] Fa14


The A.I.D.A. formula is a common format used in the writing of commercials.
    • Parts of A.I.D.A. Commercial
      1. Attention: Get audience’s attention
      2. Interest: Keep interest expand attention, tell benefits, use “you,” etc.
      3. Desire: Create desire in audience.  Develop some need in the audience members that the product meets.
      4. Action: Tell audience what to do. Go to an address, go to web site or call now.

Take a look at the following TV commercial script.  See the parts of the A.I.D.A formula?  What's the need addressed?

A typical commercial script follows a two column format with the video on left and audio on right.  The video column describes what the viewer sees in each part of the commercial and the audio column describes what the audio will hear.



















Source: Hillman


There are three major formats of commercials and the A.I.D.A. formula best fits the format called the straight sell.

Format of Commercials
  • Straight Sell
    • Main “character” is a pitchman who tries to sell product to you.
  • Testimonial
    • A personal story is told to sell the product. “I use the product. It works for me. So,…”
  • Dramatization
    • Tell a quick story/mini-drama to sell product.
      • Get attention
      • Create suspense by creating a problem/need for a character
      • Solve the problem/need.  Very often it is the product that solves the problem or meets the need.


The idea of a product meeting a need is mentioned above a few times.  It is important.  There are a variety of ways of talking about human needs, but the classic is Maslow's Heirachy of Needs (see below).



We need the things above.  With this in mind, how would you write a commercial to sell a product?

Take a look at the following, recent commercial.  Does it use A.I.D.A.?  What format?  What need(s)?





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MassMedia: Advertising & PR: Public Relations & Press Releases (U8-P1) [VID] Fa14


Public relations is what an organization does that “helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between an organization and its publics” (Harlow).

If a toy company sold a product that was found to be harmful to children, what four groups (publics) would they want to be sure to work with?

Four key publics that an organization/company works with: (1) consumers, (2) government, (3) mass media, and (4) employees (internally).

What do PR people do?
  • Writing and Editing
    • Press releases, newsletters, reports
  • Media Relations
    • working with journalists, etc.
  • Special events
  • Speaking
  • Production of company media
  • Research and gather data for planning
  • Etc.

An important task that a public relations person would take on would be the writing of press releases.

"A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy" (Wikipedia).

How to write a press release?  What are the major elements of a press release?


What do the major elements of a press release look like when put all together to be released to the media?


If you are curious, you may want to check out PRWeb's list of recent press releases put out by various companies and organizations.


Press Release Source: Rich, Writing and Reporting News.




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MediaTech: Internet/New Media: History of the Internet (U9-P3) [VID] Fa14

What would a timeline (a list of events) look like for the development of the Internet as a communication tool?  Starting with the late 1960s, what new communication tools appeared on the Internet?  Examples: What year did email first appear?  What year did blogs appear?

Zuckerman gives a good timeline (or list) in his brief talk.



What would you add to this timeline for more recent years?


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MediaTech: Internet/New Media: Winston's Model and the Internet (U9-P2) Fa14

How much do you know about the development of the Internet and the use of computers as communication tools?  What do you recall from previous readings, notes and discussion?

Can you trace the development of the Internet using Winston's model?







Source: Media Technology and Society: A History From the Telegraph to the Internet







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MediaTech: Internet/New Media: The Internet Explained (U9-P1) [VID] Fa14

So, how does the Internet work?  What are the steps in the process?  The parts?




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InterculturalCom: Effective Intercultural Com: Stereotypes and Ethnocentrism (U9-P4) Fa13



If you were looking for clip art for "Native Americans" and all that you found were images like the top two images above, would this be an example of stereotyping?  How?  Use the definition.   How does the bottom image break the stereotype?  What exactly is the stereotype?

How do you tear down this brick?




Ask me about "Zhong Guo."

Watch the following images.




What was your reaction to the images?  What does your reaction have to do with ethnocentrism?  Anything?

How do you "tear down" this brick?





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InterculturalCom: Effective Intercultural Com: Discrimination, Prejudice and Racism (U9-P3) Fa14





How do you tear down this brick?




How do you tear down this brick?




Note that there are two definitions of racism given here.

Notice any connection between racism and prejudice as previously defined?

Also, what is the differences among racism, prejudice and discrimination?  They are related terms, but they are not the same thing.




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InterculturalCom: Effective Intercultural Com: Intercultural Communication Model (U9-P2) Fa14

Recall the Intercultural Communication Model?


There is a brick wall between us and effective intercultural communication. 
What are the names of the bricks in this wall?  What specifically stops us from getting to effective intercultural communication?

---

Before moving on to anxiety and uncertainty (Brick #3), I should point out that we've already covered Bricks 1 and 2.

What are they?  What are thing we've already covered that lead to difficulty in intercultural situations?

They are difference in language (Brick #1) and differences in nonverbal communication (Brick #2).

Before moving to the next bricks, one last question: How do you tear down this part of the wall, how do you fix differences in language and nonverbal communication?

And now, anxiety and uncertainty.


How does uncertainty lead to anxiety?  Got an example?

How do you "tear down" these brick?   Which one would you fix first and once you fixed it would you have the second problem?



How do you "tear down" this brick?  How do you fix this possible problem?


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InterculturalCom: Effective Intercultural Communication (U9-P1) Fa14

I use to call this lecture unit "Dealing with Difference." 
However, now I've switched to calling it "Effective Intercultural Communication."

See any reason why I changed it?  Does "Dealing with Difference" imply anything?  A negative connotation?

Whatever you call it, in intercultural situations, how do we deal with or become more effective?

One place to start is to have a clear sense of exactly what is causing an intercultural misunderstanding.  Is it a language thing?  Is it prejudice?  What exactly is causing the intercultural ineffectiveness?  If we understand where exactly the problem is, then we can move on to hopefully fixing the problem.  

---

However, before we look specifically at intercultural communication, let's address some basic skills that should be in all types of interpersonal communication.

Even before developing effective intercultural communication skills, we need to learn and practice the basic interpersonal skills below.  These are fundamental.

Some Basic Interpersonal Skills Helpful in ICC

Core Skills
  • Positiveness: Expression of positive attitudes toward self and others.
  • Other-Orientation: Attentiveness, interest, and concern for others.
  • Empathy: Feeling as the other feels.

Meta Skills
  • Mindfulness: Being consciously aware of the above skills and carefully monitoring them.
  • Metacommunication: Being aware of what is happening in the communication. Being able to think and talk about the talk.

Now, with some basic interpersonal skills out of the way, let's return to intercultural communication.  To get a better understanding of intercultural communication effectiveness, it would be helpful to have a model that helps us spot where the potential problems that may arise in intercultural encounters.



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Friday, October 24, 2014

DigPhotog: Controlling Light: What is HDR photography and what is it good for? [VID] (U8-P2) Fa14

What does HDR stand for? What is a HDR photo? What type of photography is HDR good for?  What apps (software) are needed?

How To: HDR photography for iPhone and Android (CNET TV)



What is bracketing and what does it have to do with HDR photos?


Secrets of Amazing HDR Photography (revision3)
See the first 5 minutes or so.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


Check out some fine HDR photos at BlametheMonkey.com.  When looking at the photos on this site slide the vertical line back and forth to see the standard version of the photo vs. the HDR version.  
Also see comparisons at Tim Clarke's site.  What is the difference between a normal photo and a HDR photo?  What preferences do you have?  Do you like HDR photos?  Pros and cons of HDR?


Quick HDR Landscape Tutorial
Play from 0:00 to 2:15.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


What is spot metering and what does it have to do with HDR photography?



Pro HDR App Tutorial on iPhone 4 (with Example Images!)


Pro-HDR - an app that allows you to take HDR photos.
Note: Try the free version first, if you can find it.

Another HDR app that is currently available as a free version is HDR FX Photo Editor (Free) which is available on Android.

There is also a limited HDR feature on iPhones and iPads. Check this video, if interested.



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DigPhotog: Controlling Light: White Balance (U8-P1) Fa14


Photo credit: Anthony Quintano (cc)
Ever taken a photo like the one to the right where the photo looks a little yellowish?  This is a lighting problem. More specifically, this is a white balance problem.

Miokte defines white balance as "the camera setting used to correct any subtle color shifts in an image that sometimes occur in different kinds of light.  The white balance setting can be set by either the camera or the photographer, depending on the camera model."

Whenever you take a photograph and you have your camera set on automatic, your camera looks out into the world and makes decisions about what settings to use for ISO, shutter speed and f-stop.  We've discussed this previously.  Along with ISO, shutter speed and f-stop, the camera also makes decisions about the white balance.  And, sometimes it makes a good decision and sometimes it makes a bad decision (like in the photo to the right).  When your camera can't seem to get it right, that is the time for you to step in and change the white balance yourself.  But, how?  Why?




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Thursday, October 23, 2014

MassMedia in the News: Entertainment: CNN's Reality TV, Chinese Stand-Up, Women in Video Games + MORE [VID]



NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Wednesday, October 22, 2014

MediaTech in the News: Online TV, Digital Mags, 5K Retina iMac, Online Harassment + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Tuesday, October 21, 2014

InterculturalCom in the News: 'Dear White People', Cartoongate, Navajo Language Gap + MORE [VID]


NOTEIf for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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MediaTech: TV Tech: How HDTV Works (U8-P4) [VID] Fa14




Nowadays, you don't need a separate receiver.





The newest TV tech out there is UHDTV.

Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television or UHDTV) includes two types (1) 4K UHD (3840 pixels wide by 2160 pixels tall or 8.3 megapixels) and 8K UHD (7680 pixels wide by 4320 pixels tall or 33.2 megapixels).




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MediaTech: TV Tech: The Evolution of TV (U8-P3) [VID] Fa14




How has TV evolved?  When watching this what changes do you spot?  What features change?
Is it helpful to think of media technology evolving?
Along with Winston's model, Diffusion of Innovations, etc., we'll add the evolution of tech as another theory that helps explain how and why media tech develops and spreads throughout society.  More on this later.


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MediaTech: TV Tech: How Cable TV Works (U8-P2) [VID] Fa14






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MediaTech: TV Tech: How TV Works (More Recent) (U8-P1) [VID] Fa14






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MassMedia: Entertainment: How to Write a Joke (U7-P3) Fa14


“A good joke idea is raw potential and can be used in an almost unlimited number of contexts” (Sankey). Jokes can be used in stand-up comedy, commercials, cartoons, radio shows, a humor column in a newspaper/blog, TV sitcoms, etc. Jokes are the heart of comedy writing.

What is a joke?
  • A funny story.
  • Typically has two parts, the setup and then the punchline.
  • May have an additional part, a tag, which is an additional funny line that follows the punchline.

The Setup:
  • Sometimes called a premise.
  • “A set-up is the information the comic gives to the crowd to establish an initial subject, context and perspective.”
  • Compare this to the Setup in a 3 act film.
  • Henny Youngman’s old joke
    • The setup: “Women are crazy today.”

The Punchline:
  • “the final information the comic gives to the crowd; it alters the meaning of already given information in a surprising fashion.”
  • Compare punchlines to plot points.
  • Henny Youngman’s old joke
    • The punchline: “Take my wife………please”


Do you spot the setups and punchlines in the following Bud Light commercials? Spot the tags in some? Don't need to watch them all, just a few will do.  Watch responsibly.

Bud Light commercials deserve some ideological criticism?

Now, let's take a look at the joke structure in a situation comedy.  Just check out the first minute or so. How many jokes in the first minute?  Wonder how many jokes in a typical sitcom?  Could you write for a sitcom? Can you write a joke?









































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MassMedia: Entertainment: Is Reality TV Real? (U7-P2) Fa14

Within entertainment television, one of the increasingly popular genres is reality TV.

Reality TV: "a genre of television programming that presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and usually features ordinary people instead of professional actors.”

Unscripted?  Really?

In the video clip below, pay particular attention to the comments about writing dialogue, creating a setup and conflict.  Sound familiar?




More on the writing and creating of reality TV shows.  In the video below, pay particular attention from 1:09 to 3:15.  Note the speakers mention of archetypal roles and frankenbites.  What does he mean by a frankenbite?




The clips above suggest that during the production of a reality TV episode, "writers" sometimes write dialogue for the "actors" and do things to create conflict.

However, it is in post-production, where a lot of the creating or writing of the story happens.  In post-production, the producers and "writers" have to put together the best material to tell the best story.  The post-production process would begin with (1) the screening of 100s of hours of raw footage, (2) identifying a story that they want to tell, and (3) try to thread that story through the acts of episode.

The common parts of a story: introduction of character, explain the problem or need, face the obstacles to overcoming that problem, the character does or does not solve their problem.  This sound familiar?

One of the videos above, suggests that it is in post-production where some creative editing can happen. Frankenbites, for example?

Could you write a reality TV series?  An interesting challenge, yes?  How would it be similar to and different from the writing of fictional TV?


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Monday, October 20, 2014

MassMedia: Entertainment: Hero's Journey (U7-P1) Fa14



Previously, we've covered how to write a story based on the three-act structure (e.g., Syd Field's approach). Now let's take a look at a different way of writing a story. Joseph Campbell first identified what he called the Hero's Journey, common story structure found around the world. He found this common story structure in a vast number of old myths from around the world.  Some film directors started using Campell's work when they were writing their own stories.  The most famous example of a film which was shaped by Campbell's work is George Lucas' Star Wars. After the success of Star Wars, many script writers began using the Campbell's ideas. Today there are a number of books on how to use Cambell's ideas in script writing.

However, let's skip the books and get some insight from the videos below.

Let's start with archetypal characters found in many stories.



Now with an understanding of the common archetypal characters, let's look specifically at the hero's journey itself.



You spot the Hero's Journey in any of your favorite films?



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DigPhotog: News & Tips - Flickr, iPad, Blur, 4K, 250MP + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Friday, October 17, 2014

InterculturalCom: Intercultural Romance: Activity: WWYD? (U7-U4) Fa14


The ABC series What Would You Do?  provides us with a critical incident to analyze for intercultural/interracial romances.



What would you do?  Why?
Other thoughts about this ABC clip?

And now this WWYD? critical incident:



WWYD?


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InterculturalCom: Intercultural Romance: Activity: Loving v. Virginia (U7-P3) Fa14



How do the state laws like the ones in Virginia fit into the previous discussion of internal and external barrier?

If you are curious:

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InterculturalCom: Intercultural Romance: Jungle Fever and Barriers to Interracial Marriage (U7-P2) Fa14


As the number of interracial marriages has increased so too has the approval of interracial marriages.  In the late 1950s less than 10% of the U.S. population approved of interracial marriages.  By 2007, the approval rating was almost 80%.



So, still with a significant portion of the U.S. population disapproving interracial marriages, couples in such marriages face some unnecessary challenges.  Besides the normal challenges of any relationship, an interracial or intercultural relationship faces two additional barriers to a healthy relationship: internal barriers and external barriers.

The internal barriers are those of any intercultural interaction.

How does intercultural communication work? What is the process?
Two people from different cultures interact, but there are barriers to effective intercultural communication.  Some of the barriers include: difference in language, difference in nonverbals, difference in values, ethnocentrism and prejudice.

























In addition to the above an interracial couple may also face some external barriers.







If you get a chance to watch or re-watch Jungle Fever, see if you spot the internal and external barriers.

You may also want to see the intercultural relationship in The Joy Luck Club.

Can you think of more recent films that show the internal and external barriers that interracial and intercultural couples face?


------- FROM TWITTER:




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InterculturalCom: Intercultural Romance: Jungle Fever and Interracial Marriage (U7-P1) Fa14

Note: Click on images to see large size.


The above painting is "Othello and Desdemona" by Chasserieu from the early 1800s.  It is inspired by William Shakespeare's play Othello from approximate 1603. In the painting are Othello, the Moor and Desdemona, his Venetian wife.


The title "Jungle Fever" comes from a 1991 Spike Lee film.  More on the Jungle Fever film later.


Let's turn now to the topic of interracial marriages in the United States.  Over the past few decades there has been strong growth in the number of interracial marriages from less than 1% in 1970 to approximately 10% in 2010.  In the U.S today more than 1 in 10 marriages are interracial marriages.




When you look at the number of unmarried couples the percentage of interracial couples is even higher.

Info source | Photo credit: J


Info source | Photo credit: Salihan Laugesen 


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Thursday, October 16, 2014

MassMedia in the News: Visual Media: TV's 'Elementary', Hollywood's 'Kill the Messenger' & Photo Tips + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Wednesday, October 15, 2014

DigPhotog: News & Tips - NYPD Breaks Camera, LA's Ansel Adams, 46MP + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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MediaTech in the News: Smartphones, Cell Phones, 1080p Stuff, Gaming Consequences + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Tuesday, October 14, 2014

"CNN Films: Ivory Tower Trailer" (My New Fav YouTube Video) [VID]



I just added this video as a favorite on my YouTube channel.





Originally uploaded to YouTube by CNN.

See Video: CNN Films: Ivory Tower Trailer

Description: "Ivory Tower, coming this fall to CNN questions the cost and value of higher education."



Subscribe to my YouTube Channel.

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MediaTech: Cell Phones, Popcorn and the Consequences of Cell Phone Tech (U7) [VID] Fa14


If I say popcorn and cell phones, what pops into your mind?

Seen the videos on the Internet that show people using cell phones to pop popcorn?

Are there health concerns you have when using cell phones?
That is, is there a serious consequence of us adopting cell phones?

Be sure to stop the video at 3 minutes in and do a little thinking.






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Sunday, October 12, 2014

MassMedia: Visual Media: Ideological Criticism: How to Do Ideological Criticism (U6-P3) Fa14

How to Do Ideological Criticism (according to Foss)

“The primary goal of the ideological critic is to discover and make visible the dominant ideology or ideologies embedded in an artifact and ideologies that are being muted in it” (Foss, p. 295-296).

  • Step 1: Formulate RQs
    • What is the ideology embodied in this artifact?
    • What are the implication of this ideology?
    • What are the alternative ideologies not expressed?
    • Are there aspects of the artifact that support emancipation? Etc.
  • Step 2: Select Unit of Analysis
    • What specific aspect(s) of the artifact/text will you focus on?
  • Step 3: Analyzing the Artifact
    • Identification of Nature of Ideology
      • What does the artifact ask the audience to believe, understand, feel or think about?
      • What are the arguments made in the artifact?
      • What is seen as good or valued?
      • What ideologies are hidden?
    • Identification of Interests Included
      • What is the power structure and what groups are supported?
    • Identification of Strategies in Support of Ideology
      • How does the rhetoric legitimize the ideology and interests of some groups over others?
      • How exactly is the dominant ideology supported?
      • How exactly are alternative ideologies hidden?

Source: Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice

If you did an ideological critic of the following cartoon, how would you do that?

The Brotherhood of Man - Post-WWII Animated Cartoon Against Prejudice and Racism (1946)


Have any rhetorical texts you might analyze using ideological criticism?  What ideologies do they promote? What ideologies do they mute?  What do you think you'd find?


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See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.