Friday, January 30, 2015

DigPhotog: Finding Mentors: Finding Vivian Maier - Official Movie Trailer (W4-P4) [VID] Sp15

Speaking of street photography...

I mentioned before the importance of finding photography mentors.  I suggested Gordon Parks as one possible mentor.  Vivian Maier is another.

Who was Vivian Maier?



If you get a chance, I'd recommend watching "Finding Vivian Maier," especially if you are a fan of street photography.


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DigPhotog: Street/Public Photography (a YT playlist+) (W4-P3) Sp15


What type of photography do you like?  What type of photography do you like taking?  Landscape?  Portrait?  Street photography?  Close-up nature (flowers, etc.)? Other?

Here, let's focus (excuse the pun) on street photography.


Street Photography

Questions to keep in mind when watching the clips below.
  • What is street photography?
  • What are some do's and don'ts of street photography?
  • What are the rights of photographers in public spaces according to the ACLU?
  • In what ways are street photography and public photography relate?


In the video above Kai suggests that we should "google it" to get a definition of street photography. When you do so, you'll find this definition that works well. Street photography is "a non-formalised [unposed] genre of photography that features subjects in candid situations within public places such as streets, parks, beaches, malls, political conventions and other associated settings"(Fogherty).

Kai also mentions the famous street photographer, Henri Cartier-Bresson. If you are curious you can see some Cartier-Bresson's street photos here. Also, if you are curious, I recommend you check out "10 Things Henri Cartier-Bresson Can Teach You About Street Photography."






If you are interested, click on the word "Playlist" or the playlist symbol to see the other videos in my playlist on street photography and the related idea of taking photos in public.

So...
What is street photography?
What are some do's and don'ts of street photography?
What are the rights of photographers in public spaces according to the ACLU?
In what ways are street photography and public photography relate?  How do paparazzi fit into this discussion?  Did I say paparazzi? :)

One of the video clips in the above playlist makes reference to the ACLU and photography in public spaces. Read the following: "Know Your Rights: Photographers"


Other types of photography

Street photography is just one type of photography that you can focus on.  There are such types as black and white photography, portraits, still life, architectural, landscapes, close-up nature (flowers, etc.), children, sports & action, etc.  I'd suggest you "focus" on one type until you developed some skills in that area and then move on to other types, if you want.



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DigPhotog: Your Favorite Type of Photography (W4-P2) Sp15

There are many different types of photography.

Created using Wordle based on MediaCollege's types of photography.












































What are your favorites?  What type of photography do you like taking or would want to take.  I'd encourage you to pick one type of photography and practice it until you do well in it and then move on to other types.

From MediaCollege's list above, the types of photography that are most relevant to beginning photographers are the following:

  • Animal, Pet - "Pets and their relationships with humans. Note that the human content is often as important as the animal" (MediaCollege).
  • Architecture - "The art of making property [like buildings] appear attractive. Often involves panoramic photography."
  • Artistic - "Photography in which creative composition is the goal."
  • Black & White - "Not simply photography without colour, black and white photography explores shapes, tones and textures. Shadows and highlights become much more important.
  • Camera Phone - "'Convenience' photography using a mobile phone's built-in camera. While not the best quality, camera phones have opened a new world of spontaneous, on-the-spot photo opportunities."
  • Commercial - "Product shots, advertising, etc."
  • Documentary - "Journalism, Events, Historical, Political, etc."
  • Event - "Concerts, parties, festivals, weddings, etc."
  • Macro - "The art of photographing very small and/or close-up objects."
  • Nature - "Landscapes, animals, plants, sea, etc."
  • Night - "Any technique used to capture images at night. Often includes infrared photography."
  • Panoramic - "Views of wide areas, up to complete 360° panoramas."
  • People - "Candid, Family, Fashion, Glamour, Passports & Visas, Portrait, Pregnancy, School, Sports, Wedding"
  • Scenic - "Landscape, Cityscape"
  • Sports - "The specialized art of shooting people engaged in sports, games and adventure activities.
  • Urban, Industrial or Street - Emphasizing urban environments.

What are your favorites?  What type of photography do you like taking or would want to take.  I'd encourage you to pick one type of photography and practice it until you do well in it and then move on to other types.


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DigPhotog: Your Photography Motivations & Style (Wk4-P1) Sp15





In his book, The BetterPhoto Guide to Digital Photography, Miotke suggests some questions a photog should ask "prior to heading out."

"WHAT’S YOUR MOTIVATION AND STYLE?
Both when you’re in the field and prior to heading out, it’s helpful to ask yourself a few questions about your goals and the way in which you approach things. For example:
  1. What’s your motive for picture-taking? (Do you want to share experiences with friends and family, to simply have fun, to preserve memories, to fill scrapbooks, to tell a story, to get a job as a photographer, or to become rich and famous? What drives you to make photos?) 
  2. Do you have any particular interests that lend themselves to inspired photography? (If you like to travel, your digital photography subjects will be very different from someone who is primarily interested in photographing children at home.) 
  3. What’s your style? (Would you consider yourself organized and punctual? Are you a pack rat or someone who likes to clear things out? Do you like to shoot just one shot every so often, or do you like to “shoot first, and ask questions later”?) Figure out your own personal shooting style."

What are your answers to these questions?



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ResearchMethods: Topics, RQs & H's: Directionality with RQs & Hs (W4-P3) Sp15


What is meant by directionality in RQs?
  • Non-directional wording:
    • e.g., There is a relationship between the IV & DV.
    • No positive or negative relationship between IV and DV stated, just that there is a relationship.
  • Directional wording:
    • e.g., As the IV increases the DV decreases.
    • A positive or negative relationship between IV and DV is given.


Now, let's test some comprehension of directionality and other material covered recently.

Give me an example RQ or H for each of the following four descriptions.

  1. RQ, Ordered IV, Non-directional
  2. H, Nominal IV, Non-directional or “two-tailed”*
  3. RQ, Ordered IV, Directional or "one-tailed"*
  4. H, Nominal IV, Directional


Which of the following examples fit the above four descriptions?
  • What is the relationship between age and intercultural sensitivity**?
  • Intercultural Sensitivity is greater for Chinese than U.S. Americans.
  • There is a difference in IC Sensitivity between men and women.
  • Is there a positive relationship between age and intercultural sensitivity?




* “One tail, two tail, red tail, blue tail” – Dr. Seuss

“Two-tailed” same as non-directional
“One-tailed” same as directional

"I hope they never lose their sense of wonder and discovery." Who said that? What was he talking about? How's that fit with the Critical Thinker's Creed?




Directionality and "tails" will surface again later in discussion of some statistics.



** Think of intercultural sensitivity as the opposite of prejudice. Think of it as a score that somebody would get on a survey that measures intercultural sensitivity.



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ResearchMethods: Topics, RQs & H's: IVs, DVs, CVs & RQs (W4-P2) Sp15

Earlier we defined...
Research question (RQ): "An interrogative statement exploring the relationship between two or more constructs [concepts, variables, etc.]" (Stewart, 2002, p. 173).
More specifically, we could say a RQ is a question that asks about the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

We didn't change anything.  We just added some further detail.  We just named the variables.

So what are independent variables, etc.?

  • Dependent variable (DV): the variable that is being influenced by another variable.
    • The value of the DV is dependent on the value of the IV.
  • Independent variable (IV): the variable that is doing the influencing.
  • Confounding variable: a variable that may also explain what is being studied, but is not a main focus of the study.

Example: Does violence in video games (IV) cause violent behavior in children (DV)?

What would that RQ look like if you diagrammed it?

How does the CV work in here?  Can you think of a CV for the above RQ?


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ResearchMethods: Topics, RQs & H's: Research Questions & Hs (W4-P1) [VID] Sp15

Research question (RQ): "An interrogative statement exploring the relationship between two or more constructs [concepts, variables, etc.]" (Stewart, 2002, p. 173).

In short, is there a relationship between one variable and another?

In the past I asked students to offer research questions they had a serious interest in answering.  Do the student examples below fit the definition?  Any problems you spot with the examples?

  • "Does visual stimuli, or auditory stimuli, in advertisements positively affect a consumers buying behavior, meaning will the consumer be inclined to buy if a stimulating message is communicated across one of the two communication channels."
  • "Is there a positive (or a negative) relationship between the amount of violence communicated in cartoons?"
  • "Is there an increase in female orgasms in relationships related to the increase in communication?"




What are the types of variables?
  • A variable is any concept that takes on two or more values.
  • Two types:
    • Nominal: Categories
      • e.g., gender, profession, race, nationality, etc.
    • Ordered: Takes on numerical values
      • e.g., age, IQ, a prejudice score, time in conversation, etc.
What's the difference you spot between nominal and ordered?

Note: We'll add other types later, but this will work for now.




Could you generate some RQs based on the variables listed under nominal and ordered?

More importantly, based on the research topic that you identified earlier, what are some possible RQs you could ask?

When thinking of media-oriented RQs make sure of the following:
  • RQs are questions that can be answered using research methodologies. (Remember: Ways of knowing?)
  • RQs are related to media.  At least one variable/concept should be related to media.



Now, that we've got a grasp on an RQ, what is exactly is an H?  They are related, right?

Hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables (the dependent and independent variables).
Null hypothesis is a statement that says there is no relationship between the research variables.

How are RQs and Hs similar?  How are they different?


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Thursday, January 29, 2015

GlobalMedia in the News: Int'l Reporters Abducted, Facebook Censoring in Turkey, Mexicans at the Oscars + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).




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Tuesday, January 27, 2015

DigPhotog: News & Tips - New Gordon Parks Pics, Photos of Dead Singer, Sports Illus Fires Photogs + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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ResearchMethods: Media Research News: B/W Ads, Less Stress, Better Grades and Facebook + MORE


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Sunday, January 25, 2015

GlobalMedia: Media Imperialism & the Mindset of "The Burden" (W3-P4) Sp15


Media Imperialism (Anglo-American Dominance)

Imperialism: “the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence.” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online)

Imperialism is justified under “the White Man’s Burden” views. (See 1899 poem by Rudyard Kipling entitled “White Man’s Burden”)

Part of Poem:

"Take up the White Man's burden‑‑
        Send forth the best ye breed‑‑
Go, bind your sons to exile
        To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
       On fluttered folk and wild‑‑
Your new‑caught sullen peoples,
       Half devil and half child."

This is an example of the imperialistic mindset.

This cartoon from 1903 is a follow-up to the poem and the imperialistic, racist mindset.


















To where is the "native" being taken?  For what purpose?

And now...
Media Imperialism: “the imbalance and inequality in flow of mass media materials between developed and developing countries, and its subsequent effect on the developing country’s society and culture”(Araby in Frederick,1994).

Can you develop another definition related more to the definition of imperialism above?

Western (American) Media Imperialism.
Q: What American values can be found in its media products?
A: Individualism, materialism, adventurism, etc.

Effects of Media Imperialism?


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GlobalMedia: National Sovereignty and Transborder Data Flow (W3-P3) SP15


Explain the issue of international communication, TDF, and national sovereignty.

Sovereignty: “a country’s right to protect its borders from military aggression; to preserve its natural wealth and resources; and to choose its political, social, economic, and cultural systems without interference by another state”(Frederick, p.121).

TDF (transborder data flow): the flow of banking, insurance, credit and other similar information across national boundaries via mainly computer networks (a.k.a. TBDF).

What's the relationship between TDF and national sovereignty?  Take the two ideas and mash them together and what do you get?

Do nations have the right to "peek" over national borders and gather information about other countries?
Does a corporation, e.g., Google, have the right?
What can be done with the information gathered?  Information is power!


Remote-sensing satellites can be used to gather information from the Earth’s surface.

Does one country have the right to gather information about another country via remote-sensing satellites?


A remote sensing satellite map of Nigeria by SEDACMaps


If interested, a Google Map of Google Maps’ Legal Troubles



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GlobalMedia: New World Information & Communication Order (NWICO) (W3-P2) SP15


America's Problem with UNESCO Pt. 1
America's Problem with UNESCO Pt. 1


Now some background, some context, some history.

New World Information and Communication Order” (NWICO) [a.k.a. NWIO].

  • By the early 1970s many nations see the strong need to alleviate/lessen the problems related to international communication (see issues/controversies covered previously). They call for NWICO. They seek a new world policy.
  • Controversy about controversies. Debates about the debates.
  • Problem dealt with mainly within UNESCO.
  • "UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) – contributes to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations."

‘76-‘78
The Mass Media Declaration calls for “free flow and a wider and more balanced flow of information.”  Declaration was passed, but will to implement was weak.
‘79-‘80
Begins to unravel. Western gov’t & media concerned.  Agreed that MacBride Commission to study world “communication problems.”
‘80-‘83
Western press lobby groups and U.S. press begin to play a stronger role.  Influencing U.S. gov’t.
12/84
U.S. (Reagan administration w/ influence from the Heritage Foundation) withdraws from UNESCO
‘85-
UNESCO’s stance of NWICO wavers.  NWICO dead?  We have a New Order but it is “the order of the advanced industrialized nations” (Mowlana).

Update:
2002: UNESCO welcomes back U.S.A.
2011: U.S. withholds funding to UNESCO [video]
2013, Nov.: U.S., Israel lose voting rights at UNESCO over Palestine row


If you are interested, America's Problem with UNESCO Pt. 2 (Daily Show, 2012)


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GlobalMedia: Important Global Communication Issues (W3-P1) SP15



List major global issues (“controversies”) relevant to an understanding of international communication.
  • Communication, TDF (transborder data flow), and National Sovereignty^
  • Increasing Concentration & Transnationalization
  • Deregulation and Privatization
  • The “News Values” Controversy (Biases in News)
  • Media Imperialism (Anglo-American Dominance)^
  • Communication Policies
  • Protection and Licensing of Journalists^
  • Codes of Ethics for Media Practice
  • The Status of Women in INC^
  • “New World Information and Communication Order”^

^ To be covered in more detail later.


(Originally based on Frederick, 1993; updated)

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Saturday, January 24, 2015

DigPhotog: MacGyver and Photographers Using #Instagram (W3-P4) Sp15

Ever see the TV series called MacGyver from the 1980s-early 90s?

Here's a question for you: What's the relationship between MacGyver and a photographer using Instagram?

In each episode, MacGyver would get himself into some tight spot and would have get especially creative and use what limited resources he had to work himself out of that tight spot.  Below is a clip about MacGyver and one about Instagram, if you are not familiar.







So again: What's the relationship between MacGyver and a photographer using Instagram?

You are MacGyver and Instagram is the tight spot.  Instgram has limitation, but withn these limitations what can you improvise.  One key limitation is the square shape of the Instagram photo.

Being forced to improvise, is a good thing.  I think good art comes out of being forced to be creative given limited resources.

Got the Instagram app?


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DigPhotog: Apps for the Dig Photog Beginner - Flickr, Instagram & Pinterest (W3-P3) Sp15


As beginning digital photogs, there are obvious apps and online services that you should be familiar with and should be using.  Apps and online services like Flickr and Instagram come to mind.  You can use Flickr and Instagram to show off the photography skills you are learning.

However, a little less obvious app/service that you should be using is Pinterest. Pinterest can help in two key ways.  It can help you collect and share photographs from around the web that you like.  It can also help you specifically collect photographs from photog mentors that you should have.  Unlike Flickr and Instagram, Pinterest is designed to help you collect other peoples photos.


In his book, The BetterPhoto Guide to Digital Photography, Miotke suggests that beginning photographers should keep a visual notebook.
"One excellent way to define your goals is to keep a collection of images that inspire you. You could simply write down a list of photo ideas, but as photographers are generally visual people, it’s usually more effective to collect pictures. Subscribe to magazines or visit the library. Look though catalogs, books, and Web sites like BetterPhoto.com—anything with the kind of photographs you enjoy" (Miotke)
I agree.  However, we can use Pinterest and update Miotke's idea of a visual notebook.



There are also photo editing apps/services, but we'll get to those later.


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DigPhotog: Intro to Photography: The 4 Stages of Competence & Photography (W3-P2) Sp15


When studying photography you are learning some knowledge/facts and some skills.  For example, you are learning how to compose a photograph.

How do you take a good photograph?  What's the process?  How do you do it?

Learning how to shoot a good photograph is like learning how to shoot a good foul shot in basketball.

Preparing for a foul shot
Photo by mollyali (flickr.com).
Photo used under Creative Commons license and embedded using  the Flickr share feature.

Whether we are learning how to shoot a basketball, how to study for an exam or how to take a good photograph, we go through some stages.

The Four Stages

1. Unconscious Incompetence - We don't know that we don't know.
We are unaware of what it takes to accomplish a task.  We don't know what it takes to make that foul shot.  We don't know what it takes to get the perfect photograph.

2. Conscious Incompetence - We know that we don't know.
We may not know exactly how to do the task, but we recognize there are things we need to learn.  We become aware that there are certain things we need to do to consistently make that foul shot.  We become aware that there are certain things we need to do to consistently make a good photograph.

3. Conscious Competence - We know that we know.
We are very consciously aware of the steps to doing a task and we can carefully work through the steps of the task.  We know what is needed to make the foul shot and we consciously think through those steps when taking the foul shot.  We know what is needed to make a good photograph and we consciously think through those steps when taking a photograph.

4. Unconscious Competence - We don't know that we know.
We know the task so well, we don't think about it any more.  It has become second nature. We take that shot with little conscious thought.


What was the last skill you remember learning in which you went through these stages?  Can you describe what happened in each stage and when? 

When it comes to photography, what stage are you in now?  What's your goal?

Note: The Four Stages of Competence has been attributed to noted psychologist Abraham Maslow, Gordon Training International and William Howell in intercultural communication.


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DigPhotog: Photo Composition (W3-P1) Sp15

Remember our bumper-sticker saying: "You don't take a photo, you make a photo"?

Put another way: You compose a photograph.  You don't just take it.

Composition is the arrangement of the objects in the photograph or any other work of art.  As a photographer you have some control of this arrangement in your photograph.  You can move objects around.  You can move yourself around to shoot your photograph from a different perspective.  You take some control over your environment and not just take a photo of what you are given.

In general there are rules of composition that are used in art in general and photography specifically.

One of the best online sources for an introduction to the rules (or guidelines) of photo composition can be found at Photoinf.com.  Go to this site and study carefully the six rules of composition discussed there.

Now, how would you apply these rules in your photograph.  Go try it.  Now go take some photos -- I mean go make some photos.

Of course, there is more to composition than the above, but the above are the basics.

For example, Itten's contrasts provide another way of looking at and exploring composition.  For an online exercise using Itten's contrasts, see The 12 Days of Itten’s Contrasts from the Wild Beat blog.


To go beyond the above basics about composition, I'd recommend The Photographer's Eye: Composition and Design for Better Digital Photos









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Friday, January 23, 2015

ResearchMethods: What is Research? (W3-P4) Sp15

Research is:

“Disciplined inquiry...studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so that others can replicate the process” (Frey et al.)

Keywords: planned, reporting and replicate
What do they mean in this context?

Research, as discussed here, is more than "research" done at the library.  Instead of reading through books and online materials for answers that some other researcher has found, you conduct original research on your own to find the answer.  That is, you conduct an experiment or a survey or a textual analysis or some other research method to find the answer.  Somebody is not telling you an answer in a book or report, you are finding the answer to your research question on your own.

Two types: 
  • Scholarly 
    • conducted to promote public access to new knowledge
    • usually conducted by a professor at a university
  • Proprietary
    • conducted for a specific audience, results not shared
    • usually conducted by a researcher at a company

Why are results not shared in proprietary research?
Could you give examples of each of the two types?
Which of the two types of research would you be more likely to do in the future?

How does this discussion of research relate to the earlier discussion of science?  Are the doing research as defined above?

How's this definition of research relate to the MythBusters clip shown earlier?


If you are interested, see also Do Larger Breasts Equal Bigger Tips? | MythBusters


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ResearchMethods: How is Doing Research Like Being a Detective? (W3-P3) [VID] Sp15


Use the previous posts on theory and research and the video below to answer this question.

How is doing research like being a detective?


Theory: an explanation of how something works based on evidence. 
Research: "“Disciplined inquiry...studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so that others can replicate the process” (Frey et al.).

Also note that a researcher does research to test and build theories.

What roles do theory and evidence play in this comparison? 

From: The Mentalist



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ResearchMethods: Curiosity, Magic and Theory (W3-P2) [VIDS] Sp15

In the previous post I discussed the Critical Thinker's Creed.

Which one of the traits given in the creed is most important?  Open-mindedness? Creativity? Curiosity? Being knowledgeable?

After some careful thought, I'd have to say the key trait in the creed is curiosity.  Without curiosity, the rest don't matter. If we are not curious about how things work, then what place is there for the others?

So, let's explore curiosity a little more by way of magic. Ever watched a magic trick and became curious? "How'd they do that?"  When you ask yourself this question you are seeking a theory to explain the trick.

Let's define a theory as an explanation of how something works.  How does that trick work?  Why do people do what they do (what's the process)? Why, if you drop a book, it falls to the floor (how exactly does that work)?  Got theory?

Back to the magic show:
To practice your curiosity muscle, check out this Lance Burton magic trick.  Ask yourself, how'd he do that?



Seriously, stop and think about how he did what he did?  What's your theory/explanation? Figure out some detail.  Write down your explanation.  Draw a diagram.

Did you think it through very carefully?  Go back, if not, and theorize.

And, only once you've carefully thought about a possible explanation, then check out the next video. This is a video that I put together to explain the trick. Or maybe it was real magic?  That's a theory, too.






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ResearchMethods: Critical Thinkers and Scientists (W3-P1) Sp15

One way of defining a critical thinker is to identify some of the traits of a critical thinker, a critical thinker's creed, if you will. 

The Critical Thinker’s Creed


  • We are Open-minded.
    • We seek to understand other viewpoints.
  • We are Knowledgeable.
    • We offer opinions/claims backed with logic and evidence.
  • We are Mentally Active.
    • We use our intelligence to confront problems.
  • We are Creative.
    • We break out of established patterns of thinking and approach situations from innovative directions.
  • We are Independent Thinkers.
    • We are not afraid to disagree with the group opinion.
  • We are Curious.
    • We go beyond superficial explanations. We seek deeper understanding.

O-K-M-C-I-C   [What's this?]

So, a critical thinker is a person who follows the creed above (or some similar creed)?
Do you follow this creed?

Note: The creed above is based on a section of Chaffee's The Thinker's Way 




===

We could define a scientist as a person who does science, but that begs the question what is science. Below are some possible definitions of science based a presentation by Dr. William McComas (Skeptic Society).

  • “Science is what scientists do.”
    • So, science is what scientist do.  Scientist are those who do science.   This one isn't so helpful.
  • “Science is a method of testing claims and it is not an immutable compendium of absolute truths.”
    • This definition works.  Highlights how science is a process, something we do.
  • “Science is the quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself.”
    • Again, science is a process, in this case, a quest.

So with these last two definitions of science, then how do we define a scientist? 


I started this blog post with some questions: How should we define these three terms and how are they related?  Are they three different labels for the same thing?  Related, but a little different?  How are they different?

Got some answers?  If so, next...

Now, after thinking about how these three terms relate to one another, ask yourself, how do they relate to you?  Are you a scientist?   A critical thinker?  A skeptic (i.e., practice skepticism as defined previously)? 

And, what does this discussion have to do with related terms like theory and research?


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Monday, January 19, 2015

GlobalMedia: Fortner's Characteristics of International Communication (W2-P3) Sp15


According to Fortner, any international communication activity has the following characteristics. Think of an international communication activity (e.g., a U.S. film shown in China). Does it have these characteristics?

  1. Intentionality
    1. intentional - e.g., Voice of America (listen now)
    2. unintentional - e.g., radio "spillover"
  2. Channels
    1. public - e.g., TV or radio broadcast
    2. private - e.g., encrypted Internet message
  3. Distributive Technologies
    1. How is it distributed?  Radio/TV waves, cables/wires, film/cassettes, CDs, etc.
  4. Content Form
    1. entertainment
    2. news
    3. information/data
  5. Cultural Consequences
    1. Dominant countries impose cultural values on other countries?
    2. e.g., MTV stations in Asia?  The results of MTV in Asia?
  6. Political Nature
    1. "All [INC] is political in one way or another" (Fortner).
    2. Political = power/control
How does the following international communication news story fit into the above?
Twitter account associated with Iran's leader criticises France ((The Daily Star :: Lebanon News, 2013 )


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GlobalMedia: What are International Communication and Global Communication? (W2-P2) Sp15




There are activities (things that happen in the world) and there are fields of academic study.

International and global communication can be seen as both an activity and a field of study.

International Communication: “simply defined, is communication that occurs across international borders, that is, over the borders of nation-states”(Fortner).

International Communication: “a field of inquiry and research that consists of the transfer of values, attitudes, opinions, and information through individuals, groups, governments, and technologies, as well as the study of the structure of institutions responsible for promoting or inhibiting such messages among and between nations and cultures”(Mowlana).

Global Communication: “the intersection of disciplines that studies the transborder communication of values, attitudes, opinions, information, and data by individuals, groups, people, institutions, governments, and information technologies, as well as the resulting controversial issues arising from the structure of institutions responsible for promoting or inhibiting such messages among and between nations and cultures”(Frederick). [Note: Frederick is a former student of Mowlana. I had the honor of being a student of both Mowlana and Frederick at American University's School of International Service.]

What difference do you see between "international communication" and "global communication"?  Are they the same thing?  What is Frederick adding to the discussion?


One thing that Frederick stresses is that "global communication" is "an intersection of disciplines" or put another way it is an interdiscipline.

Interdiscipline: "a field of scholars who identify with various disciplines but share a common interest in a theme that crosses traditional [academic] boundaries“ (Littlejohn).

Disciplines which study GC: international relations, political science, communication, sociology, anthropology, electronic communication, etc.

Another difference that Frederick stresses is: 

  • International Communication: 
    • communication between nation-states
  • Global Communication: 
    • includes nation-states, but also acknowledges the growing importance of the role of the “non-state actors”

Types and examples of “non-state actors”
  • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
  • Transnational Corporations (TNCs)
    • Examples
      • Microsoft
      • Coca-Cola
      • CNN

Mowlana acknowledges Frederick’s distinction and now uses “Global Communication” in later books.

Use the definition given above and determine if the following are examples of global communication.
  • Transfer of funds from a bank in U.S. to a Swiss bank?
  • CNN broadcasts around the world?
  • An electronic journal produced in the U.S. read by a person in Argentina?
  • Voice of America broadcasts in other countries?
  • Television programming produced in New Zealand shown in Australia?
  • Pres. Obama talking with German leader?



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GlobalMedia: Martin Luther King, Jr. and International Communication (W2-P1) Sp15


Martin Luther King, Jr., 1964
(Public domain/government photo)
Recently we celebrated Martin Luther King Day.

Are there any connections between what Dr. King did and the study of international (or global) communication?

What did Dr. King protest against?  What was he fighting for?
Short answer: equal rights, peace and the end to poverty.

When you think of communication between nations, do you think of some nations (e.g., "developing nations" or poorer nations) which do not have equal representation on the world stage?  Do you think of some nations that have a stronger media system and more media influence around the world?  Familiar with the phrase "cultural imperialism"?

Some of these nations attempt to fight back against the unequal flow of media/culture (via books, movies, music) coming into their countries.  Very often it is U.S. books, movies and music that are "conquering" other nations.  Example: Top Films in Brazil right now.

Do nations have rights?  What role does global communication play in this?

So, some countries fight back for equality and a right preserve their own culture.  Also, some scholars in the field of global communication fight back.  Sometimes in their writings they address this issue.

***

The new King memorial has been in the news recently.  In the news coverage and in classroom discussions we often stress the "I have a dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial in 1963 with little attention given to King's later work.  This observations is not meant to diminish the very important 1963 speech, but to highlight how King grew and expanded his vision.

Please check out the "Mumia Abu-Jamal short video/audio clip and then see the clips of King after 1963.





"Injustice anywhere, is a threat to justice everywhere" (King).




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