Saturday, February 28, 2015

ResearchMethods: Operationalization: Levels of Measurement (W8-P2) Sp15


As you are determining what your variables are and how you are going to measure them, it is also helpful to have clearly in mind what type of data (or level of measurement) you will be using.  This is especially helpful when you are doing statistical analysis on the data later in the research process.

Recall the earlier discussion of types of variables?  Nominal variable and ordered variables, right?
Now, let's expand that "ordered" type to get a total of four types of variables or levels of measurement.



The above video covers nominal, ordinal and interval.  Note the addition of ratio below.  What's the difference between interval and ration?

Level
Can be
Ranked?
Equal
Distance
Zero-Point
Example Variables
NominalNoN/AN/AGender
OrdinalYesNoN/AList of most preferred TV shows
IntervalYesYes
Arbitrary
Has + & -
Agreement on Likert-Scale
RatioYesYes
Absolute
0 = absence
Amount of time talking


Nominal level:
  • nominal variables are classified into categories (names)
  • They are not arranged in any particular order
  • e.g., frequency counts, percentages.
    • 48% male and 52% female
    • 32% Catholic, 20% Baptist, etc.
Ordinal level:
  • categories are ordered from highest to lowest
  • intervals between categories are not standardized
    • e.g., frequency counts, percentages
Interval level:
  • categories are ranked
  • assumed equal distances between ranks
  • Arbitrary zero-point
    • e.g. temperature - 0 degrees doesn’t mean the absence of temperature. Scale has + & - values.
  • Another example: Likert-Scale
Ratio Level:
  • categories are ranked
  • Equal distances between rank
  • Absolute Zero point.   Zero means the absence of the thing you are measuring and there is no negative value.
  • e.g.,  age, weight, number of words in a sentence, etc.


What is the connection between a horse race and levels of measurement?
Horse race





















Photo used under Creative Commons.


How would the MythBusters research (viewed earlier) fit in here?  Did they operationalize their variables?  How? At what level?

Busting Myths: Asking Questions, Finding Answers


If you are interested, see also Do Larger Breasts Equal Bigger Tips? | MythBusters

Note: The level of measurement (or kind/type of data) you have will determine what statistics you use.  More on this later.



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ResearchMethods: Operationalizing Your Variables (W8-P1) [VID] Sp15


Once your variables have been identified, then they will need to be measured, but how?   And, what does an operational definition have to do with it?

What is an operational definition?  What does it mean to operationalize a variable?

"Operational definition" is "a statement that describes the observable characteristics of a concept being investigated…”(Frey, et.al).  Or, put differently, an operational definition “specifies the procedures [or operations] the researcher uses to observe the variables” (Stacks, et.al).  Notice how the second definition indicates why it is called "operatioal."

Both I.V.s & D.V.s need O.D.s.   Operational definitions allow you to measure a variable.

What does the following Jeff Foxworthy comedy have to do with operationalization?  What is Foxworthy doing in his jokes?  Is he operationally defining something?




----
Operationalization Examples:

1. Let's say you are going to do some research on prejudice, how would you operationalize prejudice?

  • Start with the conceptual definition or dictionary definition:
    • “the irrational hatred or suspicion of a particular group, race, religion, or sexual orientation”(Jandt).
  • What would the operational definition be?  How would you measure prejudice?

What are the basic “operational procedures” or ways of measuring variables?

Operational procedures:
  1. Self-report 
    1. the researcher asks subjects to report about themselves
  2. Observer’s ratings 
    1. researcher asks subject to observer and rate another
  3. Observe behavior
    1. researcher observes subject
Which method would you trust more?  Which would give a more valid measure?  Why?

How would you use these procedures with prejudice or violence?  Which would "work" better?



2. Let's say you are going to do some research on violence and video games, how would you operationalize violence?

  • Conceptual/dictionary definition of violence: "exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse" (Merriam-Websters)
  • 2/12/13 NYT news article about recent research on video games and violence
  • See an example of recent video game and violence research:

3. Let's say you are going to do some research on the effects of television on children, what would be the variables you'd study and how would you operationalize them?








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DigPhotog: Online Camera Simulators to Help Understand Aperture, Shutter Speed, etc. (W8-P2) Sp15


There are two very useful online camera simulators that I'd recommend to help you get a better understanding of aperture, shutter speed and other aspects of photography.

1. Start with Photonhead's "SimCam - Shutter and Aperture" page. It'll allow you to control a few features of the camera.  What settings would get you those blurry background photos?  Why?   Also, try out the film speed or ISO simulator.  Make changes in the settings and then take the photo (i.e. click on "shoot it").  Before clicking the shoot it button make a guess on what the new photo will look like.  Work with the simulations until your guess match the resulting photo.

2. Also, try CameraSim.com. Once you've gotten comfortable for Photonheads camera simulator, then move on to this more complicated simulator.  You can try the embed below (if it appears for you) or go directly to the site.




In addition to adjusting the shutter, aperture and mode, try adjusting the distance you are to the child and also zoom in or zoom out with the focal length setting.

When you are working with both of these simulators, it is important that after you change some settings and before you press the click button, that you make a guess as to what you think the simulated photograph will look like. Only stop messing with these simulators, once you get all your guesses right.




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DigPhotog: Controlling Light (F-Stops, Shutter Speed, ISO, etc.) (W8-P1) [VID] Sp15


As a photographer, your task is to control lightYou are a master of light.

When you turn that dial from "auto" to "manual", you are taking control of the light coming into your camera.  Two key ways of controlling the amount of light coming into your camera are by setting the f-stop and the shutter speed.

For a partial introduction to f-stops and shutter speed, check out the following video excerpt from Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)). The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.




F-stops and shutter speeds are not the only ways you can control light.  You can adjust the ISO settings or use flash, for example.  You can adjust f-stops, shutter speeds, ISO, flash, etc. to get just the right amount of light into your camera -- that perfect exposure.



"Let's Get Techie" does a good job of adding some further details.  Note the exposure triangle.




There are apps that allow you to see the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO settings for your photographs.  If you recall, the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO data and other data (e.g., date, time, GPS location) is what is called EXIF data.  For android devices one EXIF viewer app is Simple Exif Viewer.  For iOS devices an EXIF viewer app is Exif Viewer. A Google search will also show EXIF viewers for laptops and desktops.

Use one of the EXIF viewers and check the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO settings for your photographs. See if the settings or values make sense.  For example, would an ISO setting/value of 800 for an indoor photo make sense?  Why?   Would a shutter speed of 1/2 second for a blurry sports photo make sense?  Why?



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Thursday, February 26, 2015

GlobalMedia in the News: Sovereignty, Saudi Women & ISIS + MORE [VID]





NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Monday, February 23, 2015

GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Stereotypes & Ethnocentricism (W7-P4) Sp15

And now, for the last two bricks in the wall.  By the way, have you been thinking about how these bricks play a role in global communication?



A stereotype generally has the following pattern:
All people in a certain group have a certain characteristic or set of characteristics.

If you were looking for clip art for "Native Americans" and all that you found were images like the top two images above, would this be an example of stereotyping?  How?  Use the definition.   How does the bottom image break the stereotype?  What exactly is the stereotype?

How do you tear down this brick?

[Errata: "a general, fixed impression of a person based on group membership."]

























Generally speaking, a person who is ethnocentric thinks the ways of his or her people are the best and the ways of other groups are negative, backwards or inferior.  "Eating with chopsticks is stupid," they might say.

Ask me about "Zhong Guo."

Watch the following images.




What was your reaction to the images?  What does your reaction have to do with ethnocentrism?  Anything?

How do you "tear down" this brick?


How do all these bricks play a role in global communication?  How do they fit into our discussion of global communication?







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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Discrimination, Prejudice and Racism (W7-P3) Sp15

And now, some more important bricks in the wall, things that stop us from getting to effective intercultural communication.



How do you tear down this brick?
What is the difference between discrimination, prejudice, racism?  See the next few bricks.





You probably think of some TV characters who are prejudiced.  Hank Hill, Archie Bunker, etc.  What examples can you think of?
How do you tear down this brick?























Note that there are two definitions of racism given here.

Notice any connection between racism and prejudice as previously defined?

Also, what are the differences among racism, prejudice and discrimination?  They are related terms, but they are not the same thing.



How do you tear down this brick?



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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Anxiety/Uncertainty & Assuming Similarity (W7-P2) Sp15


Before moving on to anxiety (Brick #3) and uncertainty (Brick #4), I should point out that we've already covered Bricks 1 and 2.

What are they?  What are thing we've already covered that lead to difficulty in intercultural situations?

They are difference in language (Brick #1) and differences in nonverbal communication (Brick #2).

Before moving to the next bricks, one last question: How do you tear down this part of the wall, how do you fix differences in language and nonverbal communication?


And now, anxiety and uncertainty.


How does uncertainty lead to anxiety?  Got an example?

How does uncertainty and anxiety lead to ineffective intercultural communication?
How do you "tear down" these brick?   Which one would you fix first and once you fixed it would you have the second problem?


Another brick in the wall is assuming similarity, instead of differences.  "Oh, they're just like us, really."



How do you "tear down" this brick?




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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Effective Intercultural Com: Intercultural Communication Model (W7-P1) Sp15

Recall the Intercultural Communication Model?




There is a brick wall between us and effective intercultural communication. 
What are the names of the bricks in this wall?  What specifically stops us from getting to effective intercultural communication (ICC)?   What are the bricks or barriers to effective intercultural communication?  

The first two bricks or barriers are differences in language and difference is in nonverbal communication.
For the others, see the following posts.



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Tuesday, February 17, 2015

DigPhotog: Basic Tech: File Formats in Digital Photography [VID] (W7-P4) Sp15

There are three primary file formats used in digital photography: jpeg, tiff and raw.*

So, what are they?  What are the differences?  What are the benefits and drawbacks of each?  Which should you use?*



Now with the basics out of the way, let's take a closer look at the idea of a raw file.  I like Mike Browne's cake metephor.



If you want to learn more, I'd recommend "File Formats in Photography".


* Note that this discussion mainly applies to digital SLR cameras, since smartphones usually only allow jpeg formats.


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DigPhotog: Basic Tech: Technical Meets Ethical: The Ethics of Photo Manipulation [VID] (W7-P3) Sp15

So, one of the benefits of digital photography is that it is so easy to edit a photograph.

However, you could also say one of the problems with digital photography is that it is so easy to edit a photograph.   


How can this be both a benefit and a problem?


The advances in photographic technologies leads to some ethical issues in photography that need to be addressed.

Digital photo manipulation: "the application of image editing techniques to photographs in order to create an illusion or deception (in contrast to mere enhancement or correction), through analog or digital means." (Wikipedia)


Ethics: "(1) the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. (2) a set of moral principles : a theory or system of moral values —often used in plural but singular or plural in construction... (3) the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." (Merriam-Webster)


What are your ethical standards when it comes to digital manipulation?

When is it O.K. to manipulate a photograph and when is it not?
Would it be acceptable in the area of art, but not in journalism?  Why?

Digital manipulation of photos can come up in the realm of politics as in the Fox News clip below.  The third photo shown (with the poodle) is clearly "photoshopped," but so are the previous two photos of the two men (yellowed teeth, etc.).




Digital manipulation controversies can also show up in the realm of advertising with some racist overtones. One example: Did Vanity Fair lighten Beyonce’s skin? - Entertainment - Access Hollywood - TODAY.com. For more on this story and other related digital manipulations in the news, see this set of links.




Browse through the many examples of photo manipulation found on Photo Tampering Throughout History.  This site has over 120 examples of photo manipulations from the late 1800s to today.  Browse through some of them.  As you check out some of the examples on the site, see if you can fine tune your ethical standards about photo manipulation.  When is it O.K.?  When is it not?


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DigPhotog: Basic Tech: Film vs. Digital and Steps to Taking a Digital Photograph [VID] (W7-P2) Sp15


So, advances in technology have brought us the digital camera.  But, just because it is new tech, does that mean digital photography is better than film photography?

Compared to traditional film photography, what are the benefits of digital photography?   In the video below, two benefits are offered.*  To that list we can add: (3) digital photography allows for a smaller storage space and (4) digital photography allows for easy editing.

Note the key photography terms defined in the video?  Watch for the missspelling in the clip?



So, it can be argued that digital is better.  But, how to take a digital photograph?  What is the process? What are the steps in the process?

Technical Steps to Taking a Photograph (camera set-up, etc.)





If you are looking for videos that explain the technical basics of digital photography, I'd recommend Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)).  The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.  Of course, there is good content on YouTube as well.








*Note that the video is a little dated. He says, for example, that film photography is still the standard. That is no longer the case.


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DigPhotog: Basic Tech: How Does a Digital Camera Work? [VID] (W7-P1) Sp15

Before we move further Let's look under the hood.  Let's shift our focus, excuse the pun, from art to tech.
Let's move our discussion from photographic criticism and composition to some basics of the photographic technology.

Let's start with, how does a digital camera work? What are the steps in the process (a list of the steps)?
Along with this, what are the parts of the camera relevant to a discussion of how it works (a list of the parts)?

How DSLR Cameras Work


Let's take a look at the process again, in a slightly different way.



If you'd like to learn more, I'd recommend two additional YouTube videos: (1) the more detailed "How Digital Cameras Really Work" and the longer "How Does a Camera Work?".



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Thursday, February 12, 2015

GlobalMedia in the News: Smith at Grammys, Netflix in Japan, Apple in China, Facebook in India & FGM + MORE [VID]




NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Tuesday, February 10, 2015

DigPhotog: News & Tips - Fatal Photo, Celebrity Photos, 40MP Sensor & Van Der Zee + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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ResearchMethods: Media Research News: Depressing Media, Critical Thinking, Measles & Climate Change + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

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Monday, February 9, 2015

GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: "The Ugly American" (W5-P6) [VID] Sp15


Counterproductive attitudes that Americans can have about people from other countries?*
  • "Foreigners coming to live in the U.S. should adapt American ways."
  • "Asians do many things backwards."
  • "Much of the world’s population remains underdeveloped because they don’t take the initiative to develop themselves."
  • "Americans have been very generous in teaching other people how to do things the right way."
  • "English should be accepted as the universal language."

Q: Central theme in the counterproductive attitudes expressed above?
A: Ethnocentrism: a belief that your group's ways are the best ways.

Imagine a person working in development communication who heads into a development project abroad with the above attitudes. How would things work out?



The phrase "ugly American" comes, in part, from a 1958 novel about an American who travels abroad and expresses an ethnocentric attitude.  The novel was made into a 1963 film staring Marlon Brando.




Now to another film.  How does Disney's Pocahontas fit into this discussion?

Do you spot the ethnocentric attitude from John Smith in this Pocahontas clip?
(If the video clip does not work, then the Disney's Pocahontas film can be found on sites like Netflix.  If you find the full film see the segment from about 35:45 to about 40:00.)



Given the similarity between Pocahontas and Avatar (see below), then you might explore the "ugly Earthling" aspects of Avatar.  Can you think of other related films?




* Of course, this could go the other way. People in other countries can have ethnocentric views toward the U.S. --  The ugly _____.


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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Hofstede’s Dimensions of Value Orientation (W5-P5) Sp15



Geert Hofstede during the 1980s surveyed over 100,000 workers in multinational corporations in forty countries.

He found 4 main dimensions along which countries/cultures differ. Each country was ranked according to his dimensions.

  • 1. Individualism - Collectivism
    • I versus We
    • e.g., “Squeaking wheel gets the greasy.”
    • e.g., “The nail that sticks up gets pounded down.”
    • Indiv. (e.g., U.S. & Australia) <--------> Coll (e.g., Taiwan & Peru)
  • 2. Uncertainty Avoidance
    • The extent to which a culture feels threatened by the unknown.
    • Hi-U.A. cultures try to avoid uncertainty.
    • Hi UA (e.g., Greece & Japan) <---> Low UA (e.g. U.S. & Denmark )
  • 3. Power Distance
    • The extent to which a culture accepts inequality.
    • Hi-P.D. cultures accept inequality in relationships.
    • Hi PD (e.g. Philippines & India) <----> Low PD (e.g. Sweden & N.Z.)
  • 4. Masculinity and Femininity
    • Masculinity = assertiveness, ambition, possessions...
    • Femininity = caring and nurturing...
    • M (e.g., Japan & Italy) <-----------> F (e.g., Norway & Denmark)



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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Cultural Values (W5-P4) Sp15



What are values?

"Social principles, goals, or standards accepted by persons in a culture. They are learned by contacts with the family, teachers, and religious leaders. The media also may influence one’s value system."

Or what are the things that a culture finds valuable, important.  
Money?   Family?

























What are your values?  Where did you get them?  Are there some values more important than others?  What is your most important value?  Interacted with somebody who has a different set of values?



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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: A Model of Intercultural Com (W5-P3) Sp15




Read the diagram above.  The model of intercultural communication (ICC) begins with two people from different cultures interacting or communicating.  What is the rest of the process?  What are the parts of the process of intercultural communication?  In this model, the goal is effective intercultural communication, but what are some of the barriers that can cause problems?  Prejudice?  Stereotypes?  Discrimination?  Differences in language?  Others?



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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Definitions and Metaphors for Culture (W5-P2) Sp15


What is culture?

There are hundreds of definitions of culture in the literature.
Let's use this one:

Culture is a set of shared knowledge that influences a particular group of people’s behavior (Hart).

Metaphors of Culture
  • Hofstede's Computer Metaphor:
    • Culture is the software of the mind.
    • We are programmed by our experiences.  We are taught our culture.
  • Hofstede's Game Metaphor:
    • Culture is "the unwritten rules of the social game."
  • The Iceberg Metaphor of Culture
    • Above the waterline—what we can see; behaviors that are visible.
    • Below the waterline—what we cannot see; values and beliefs that are not visible.

File:Iceberg.jpg
Created by Uwe Kils 


















































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GlobalMedia: Intercultural Com: Tower of Babel (W5-P1) Sp15



File:Brueghel-tower-of-babel.jpg
The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563). Image in the public domain.

The image above depicts the Biblical story of how different languages and cultures came to be.
So, what is the story and what does it have to do with intercultural communication?



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Friday, February 6, 2015

DigPhotog: An Intro to Photojournalism (W5-P3) [VID] Sp15

Speaking of photojournalists and their composition of captions...

Who is a photojournalist and what do they do?

The following videos provide a good overview of photojournalism from rules and tips to what it is like to be a photojournalist.

First, let's get a feel for what it is like to be a photojournalist.

"A Day in the Life of a Photojournalist"


"Insight into Photojournalism - David Dare Parker" - Freelance Photojournalist - The International Angle




In the "Photojournalism Tutorial" video below pay close attention to (1) the definition of photojournalism, (2) the three key rules of journalism/photojournalism, (3) the rules of the field and (4) the tips for being a good photojournalist.

"Photojournalism Tutorial"




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DigPhotog: Writing Captions in Photojournalism (W5-P2) Sp15



Besides composing a good photograph, photographers may also be involved in another type of composition. Photographers, especially photojournalist, may also compose captions for their photographs.


Richard Lee Bland Newspaper Photo
Source
They say that a picture is worth a thousand words.

If that is true for news photographs, then the caption (the verbal description) for the photograph, is like the lead to the thousand word story.

In a news article, the first few sentences of the story is the lead. The lead tells the reader the who, what, when, where, why and how of the story. Packed into the lead is quick overview of the whole news story.*


So, as Kobre' points out in his book, Photojournalism: The Professionals' Approach, a caption should tell the reader/viewer the who, what, when, where, why and how of the photograph.  The caption serves the same purpose as a lead in a written news story. [If your interest is specifically in photojournalism, I'd strongly recommend Kobre's book.]

The 5 W's and the H of a news story (or in this case, a news photograph):
  • Who - who is the news event about, who is in the photo?
  • What - what happened in the news event, what is happening in the photo?
  • When - when did the news event happen, when was the photo taken?
  • Where - where did the news event happen, where was the photo taken?
  • Why (1) - why did the news event happen, what happened that lead to the photograph, what happened before?
  • Why (2) - what is the significance of the news event, why is it important to us, what is going to happen after this event?
  • How - how did the event happen?

So, a lead in a written news story should answer the who, what, when, where and how of the new event and sometimes it'll address the why and how.

Now, if a caption of a news photograph is like the lead of a news story, then what does a caption include.

The Associated Press recommends a caption should contain two concise sentences. The first sentence of the caption should include the who, what, when and where.  The second sentence should provide the background information on the how and the why, especially the significance of the news event.

Tip: Start the first sentence with the most important thing to your audience.  If who is important, then start with who.  For example, if a celebrity is the who, then you'll probably want to start your sentence with that person's name. If the where is important, then start your first sentence with where.  For example, if a disease is breaking out is a certain area, then the location or where, is probably more important.

Check out AP's Top Photos of the Week page for current examples of news photographs and their captions. Hover the mouse over the photos to see the captions.  Do the AP photographers and photo editors practice what the AP style guidelines recommend?

Can you write a caption for a new photo?  Find some photos you know something about, perhaps from the AP link above or this link, and see if you can write a caption for the photo.  Practice. practice, practice.


* We're especially talking about hard news stories here.



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DigPhotog: Rules of Composition: Not Just for Still Photography -- How to Use in Video (W5-P1) [VID] Sp15


The "rules" of composition that you learn for still photography can also be used in your video work.  After you learned about composition in still photography (rule of thirds, framing, etc.), did you start to spot those same rules being used in your favorite TV show or movie?  If not, look for it the next time you are watching TV or a movie.

Take, for example, the Tarantino film, Kill Bill.


Just focus on the rule of thirds.  How often do you see the rule of thirds?  How is it used?




Now, you try it.  Go to YouTube (or another video source) and look for clips of a favorite movie.  See how many rules of composition you see being used.  Besides the rule of thirds, what else do you see?  Framing?


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ResearchMethods: Library Research & APA Style: Citing Sources (W5-P3) Sp15

You are working on some research and you want to mention or cite a book in the research paper you are writing.

How do you cite a book using APA-style?


Two Book Examples:

Jewell, T. E., & Hart, W. B. (1996). Interpersonal communication: Student workbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Frey, L. R., Botan, C. H., & Kreps, G. L. (2000). Investigating communication: An introduction to research methods. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.



What about an edited book (APA-style)?

Iyengar, S., & Reeves, R. (Eds.). (1997). Do the media govern? Politicians, voters, and reporters in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.




What about a chapter from an edited book (APA-style)?

Rogers, E. M., & Hart, W. B. (1997). A paradigmatic history of agenda-setting research. In S. Iyengar & R. Reeves (Eds.), Do the media govern? Politicians, voters, and reporters in America (pp. 225-236). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.



What about an article in an academic journal (Gangman-style, I mean APA style)?

Hart, W. B., (1999). Interdisciplinary influences in the study of intercultural relations: A citation analysis of the International Journal of Intercultural Relations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 575-589.

Examples of academic or scholarly journals. Public domain photo.



One of the best online sources for how to cite books, articles, etc. is Purdue University's Research and Citation Resources website.  This site covers APA and other methods.


Note: The above is based on the 6th edition of the APA manual.






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ResearchMethods: Library Research & APA Style: Finding Books & Journals(W5-P2) Sp15

When doing research, one of the first things you do is gather up journal articles and books that have also addressed your research question.  This is known as a literature review.

In terms of journal articles, a media scholar would probably want to check out the following journals published by ICA and AEJMC.


What are some comm journals published by the ICA? What is ICA?
  • Human Communication Research
  • Journal of Communication
  • Communication Theory
What are some journals published by the AEJMC?  What is AEJMC?

Some Bonus Tips...

What are some free online sources that may help with gathering background information about your research topic?  How could they be used in research?



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ResearchMethods: Library Research & APA Style: Puzzle Break (W5-P1) Sp15


Our Critical Thinkers Creed
  • We are Open-minded.
    • We seek to understand the other viewpoints.
  • We are Knowledgeable.
    • We offer opinions/claims backed with logic and evidence.
  • We are Mentally Active.
    • We use our intelligence to confront problems.
  • We are Curious.
    • We go beyond superficial explanations. We seek deeper understanding.
  • We are Independent Thinkers.
    • We are not afraid to disagree with the group opinion.
  • We are Creative.
    • We break out of established patterns of thinking and approach situations from innovative directions.
What does the creed mean in research and in our personal lives?
How does it relate to solving puzzles and problems?
To begin with, the critical thinkers creed is a good perspective to have when faced with puzzles and problems.

What would be some other approaches to take when solving puzzles and problems?

Advice for Solving Puzzles and Problems

  • Be confident. Positive attitude.
  • Be creative (“think outside the box”).
  • Try a different approach / Look at it from different viewpoints.
  • Take inventory (write-down) what you know and what you don’t.
  • Never assume.
  • Ask lots of questions.
  • Break big problem into smaller steps.
  • Look for patterns.
Source: Modified from Pat Murphy, et.al. The Brain Explorer (Exploratorium at Home)


Try some puzzles:

Puzzle 1:
"Dr. Arnold Gluck, a psychiatrist in New York, came across the world’s most enthusiastic bookworm during the course for his work. He had been one since infancy. All he ever did was devour books. Yet he never held down a proper job and he didn’t go to the public library. He hadn’t inherited money, in fact he was penniless. So how could he get through all those books?"



Puzzle 2: A Lewis Carroll Puzzle
Lewis Carroll, author (Alice in Wonderland)
a.k.a. Lutwidge Dodgson, mathematician and logician

A STICK I FOUND

"A stick I found that weighed two pound:
I sawed it up one day
In pieces eight of equal weight!
How much did each piece weigh?

(Everybody says ‘a quarter of a pound’, which is wrong.)"




What is the relationship between doing research and solving puzzles?


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