Thursday, March 26, 2015

GlobalMedia in the News: Coverage of Africa, 'Rape Culture' Rap, World-Wide McDonald's Campaign + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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Tuesday, March 24, 2015

DigPhotog: News & Tips - A Famous Photo, The Jordan Jumpman & Photographing Police + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

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ResearchMethods: Media Research News: Celebrity Scientists, Food TV & Health, Music TV & Sex +MORE[VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

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Sunday, March 22, 2015

GlobalMedia: Development Communication (cont'd): Entertainment Education (W11-P1) Sp15


The idea of presenting a development message within a fictional program is the type of development communication that is called entertainment education.  The World Bank is a multinational organization that uses entertainment education in their work.  See the video below for examples and background information.




Below is another example of entertainment education.  Tim Reid, noted Norfolk State University alumnus and actor/director/producer, and NSU students (Maryna Kariuk and Shimira Cole) were involved in the making of "Hear My Son".  How exactly is this an example of entertainment education?


Hear My Son from Legacy Media Institute on Vimeo.


Interested in learning more about entertainment education, I'd recommend starting with a book edited by Arvind Singhal, Michael J. Cody, Everett M. Rogers and Miguel Sabido called
Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice (Routledge Communication Series)





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DigPhotog: Controlling Light: What is HDR photography and what is it good for? [VID] (W11-P2) Sp15

What is an HDR photo? What does HDR stand for? What type of photography is HDR good for?  What apps (software) are needed?

How To: HDR photography for iPhone and Android (CNET TV)


What is bracketing and what does it have to do with HDR photos?
In short, bracketing is "taking the same photo more than once using different settings for different exposures"




Secrets of Amazing HDR Photography (revision3)
See the first 5 minutes or so.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


Check out some fine HDR photos at BlametheMonkey.com.  When looking at the photos on this site slide the vertical line back and forth to see the standard version of the photo vs. the HDR version.  
Also see comparisons at Tim Clarke's site.  What is the difference between a normal photo and a HDR photo?  What preferences do you have?  Do you like HDR photos?  Pros and cons of HDR?



Quick HDR Landscape Tutorial
Play from 0:00 to 2:15.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


What is spot metering and what does it have to do with HDR photography?
Spot metering is a setting on a camera in which "the photographer [takes] control over exactly which portion of the frame [or image in the view finder] the meter should use to determine proper exposure."


Pro HDR App Tutorial on iPhone 4 (with Example Images!)


Pro-HDR - an app that allows you to take HDR photos.
Note: Try the free version first, if you can find it.

Another HDR app that is currently available as a free version is HDR FX Photo Editor (Free) which is available on Android.

There is also a limited HDR feature on iPhones and iPads. Check this video, if interested.


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DigPhotog: Controlling Light: White Balance (W11-P1) Fa15


Photo credit: Anthony Quintano (cc)
Ever taken a photo like the one to the right where the photo looks a little yellowish?  This is a lighting problem. More specifically, this is a white balance problem.

Miokte defines white balance as "the camera setting used to correct any subtle color shifts in an image that sometimes occur in different kinds of light.  The white balance setting can be set by either the camera or the photographer, depending on the camera model."

Whenever you take a photograph and you have your camera set on automatic, your camera looks out into the world and makes decisions about what settings to use for ISO, shutter speed and f-stop.  We've discussed this previously.  Along with ISO, shutter speed and f-stop, the camera also makes decisions about the white balance.  And, sometimes it makes a good decision and sometimes it makes a bad decision (like in the photo to the right).  When your camera can't seem to get it right, that is the time for you to step in and change the white balance yourself.  But, how?  Why?




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ResearchMethods: Validity, Reliability, Etc.: Internal and External Validity + Sampling (W11-P1) Sp15

Sampling

Sampling is the process of selecting subjects for a study.  Generally, the subjects are the specific people studied in an experiment or surveyed.  The sample is chosen out of a larger population.

Why sample?  The population you are studying is too large to study, so you have to study just a part of that population (a sample).

What could be some problems with sampling (examples of poor sampling)?  Bias sample?

To reduce the problems of poor sampling, you want to use random sampling when you can.  In random sampling all members of a population have an equal chance of getting into sample.













------------


What are internal and external validity?

With this type validity we are looking at the validity of the overall study, not just the validity of the instruments being used to measure the variables.

You are asking the question: Is it a valid study? Not: Is it a valid instrument?



Internal validity: Are the conclusions to be trusted for the particular study?  Or, are the results valid for the subjects in your sample.   For a visual representation just look the orange circle at the top. The black dots inside the orange circle are the subjects in the sample.


External validity: To whom do the conclusions apply? Generalizability of findings.  The results, can they be generalized to the larger populations   For a visual representation see the orange circle within the pinkish-purple circle.  The orange circle represents the sample and pinkish-purple circle represents the larger population.




Question: Could you have very poor internal validity, but good external validity?

--------

If something goes wrong in a study, who can you blame it on?   That is, if the study is not getting valid results, who can you blame it on? And you can't blame it on the alcohol.  :)

What are some threats to a study’s internal validity?   Or, put another way, where can you put the blame?
  • Threats due to researcher (e.g., influence results).  
  • Threats due to how research is conducted (e.g., inaccurate, inconsistent research, poorly designed survey)
  • Threats due to research subjects
    • Hawthorne effect
    • mortality - loosing people from a study (due to death, etc.)
    • maturation - internal change explains behavior.  In studies done over a period of time the subjects may change.
Example: 4 year study of film viewing and levels of prejudice. Subjects= college students.
See any possible threats to internal validity?


What are some threats to a study’s external validity?
  • Research procedures don’t reflect everyday life
    • ecological validity
  • Different finding, same sample
    • replication is important
  • Poor sampling


Any problems with studies done at universities?
Generalizability problem?





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Tuesday, March 17, 2015

DigPhotog: News & Tips - Flags, Photos, Bloody Sunday & a Weasel + MORE [VID]



NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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ResearchMethods: Media Research News: Depiction of Race on TV News, News Consumption & Drunkenness in YT vids+MORE[VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).

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Friday, March 13, 2015

ResearchMethods: Validity, Reliability, Etc.: Definitions (Written and Visual) (W10-P1) Sp15

You operationalize your variables in order to measure them.
So, now let's talk about measurement and related concepts.

When measuring your variables you may ask yourself...
Is my measure “on target”?   That is, are my measurements accurate?
Do my measures “cluster together”?  That is, am I getting consistent results?

But what does that mean?

What we are talking about is validity and reliability.

Let's start by thinking about how to measure prejudice in people. How would you do that? A survey? What would the questions be on the survey?  Your measure of prejudice needs to be valid and reliable.  Are you sure they are valid and reliable?   Are you accurately measure the level of prejudice in a person with your survey?  Does your survey get the same results with the same person each time?


Validity: “the extent that scales or questions do measure what they are thought to measure”(Stacks & Hocking).

You can think of validity using a target metaphor.  Is it on target (i.e.,  near the bulls eye)?
Each "shot" on the target represents a measurement.




Or think of a bathroom scale.  What does it meen to say a bathroom scale is valid or not?


2012_May_03_Bathroom Scale_008
Photo by elcamino73. Used under Creative Commons.

If you get on your bathroom scale and it says 3 pounds or 1723 pounds, then your scale is broken. It is not right.  It is not valid.  Not only is your scale broken, the results (3, 1723) are not valid measures of your weight.

------------------

A related concept to validity is reliability.

Before looking at a formal definition of reliability, just think of the everyday use of that word.  If you say your friend is reliable, what does that mean?   It means you can count on your friend. Every time that you call on that friend they are there.  Not sometimes.  All the time.  They are consistent.  The formal definition of reliability is similar.

Reliability: “the extent to which measurement yields numbers (data) are consistent, stable, and dependable.” (Stacks & Hocking).

Again, let's use some metaphors to see the concept.




































What about a bathroom scale and reliability?  What does it mean to say that a bathroom scale is reliable?


2012_May_03_Bathroom Scale_008
Photo by elcamino73. Used under Creative Commons.




Can an instrument can be reliable, but not valid. That is, cluster together, but not be on target?


















If you had a bathroom scale that was reliable, but not valid, what results would you get if you weighted yourself several times?




Example

Let's say we are interested in the topic of communication apprehension.  More specifically, we are interested in the relationship between gender and communication apprehension.  Do men or women have higher levels of communication apprehension?  How would we go about answering that question?

How would we measure communication apprehension in our subjects (the people we are studying)?  We could observe.  What about a survey?  Yeah, let's do a survey.  Something like below.

-------------------------------------
Conversation Apprehension Scale

1. While participating in a conversation with a new acquaintance, I feel very nervous.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

2. I have no fear of speaking up in conversations.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

3. Ordinarily I am very tense and nervous in conversations.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

4. Ordinarily I am very calm and relaxed in conversations.
Strongly Agree --- Moderately Agree --- Neutral --- Moderately Disagree --- Strongly Disagree

------------------------------------


Think of this survey as a measuring instrument, just like a bathroom scale. The bathroom scale measures your weight and this survey would measure your communication apprehension.

Does our instrument (the above survey) have good measurement validity and measurement reliability? How would you determine that?

Measurement validity:
“the extent to which researchers are actually measuring the concepts they intend to measure”(FBFK)
Do the instruments give accurate/true readings?

Measurement reliability:
“the extent to which measurements of a variable are consistent and trustworthy”(FBFK)
Do the instruments continue to give the same readings every time they are used?


What are the procedures for checking an instrument’s reliability?

Similar results every time?
0% = Not reliable to 100% highly reliable

Three Ways to Check Instrument’s Reliability
1. Test and retest it.
2. Test, change wording slightly, retest.
3. Compare 1/2 items to the other 1/2

3 options, Not step-by-step
Which option is best?  Costs and benefits?

--------------






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DigPhotog: Exposure and Histograms (W10-P2) Sp15


In the field of statistics, a histogram is "a graphical representation of the distribution of data."  The histogram below shows the distribution of black cherry trees according to height.  Note that there are many trees between 70 and 80 inches tall and a few that are 60-65 inches tall and even fewer that are 85-90 inches tall.













Graphic credit: Mwtoews. Used under Creative Commons

In the field of photography, a histogram is defined in a similar way.  It is a graphical representation of data.  But, what data?  A histogram for a photograph is "a graphical representation of the tonal distribution in a digital image.  It plots the number of pixels for each tonal value."  The tones in a photograph range from shadows (the darker areas or pixels) to midtones (grey areas or pixels) to highlights (the white or bright areas of the photograph).  A photograph which is underexposed, for example, would have lots of shadow.

For visuals and further discussion see the videos below.



A key question: How could you use a histogram to determine if your photos have proper exposure?




A good app for showing the histogram on both iOS and Android is called PicsPlay.  Get the free version first.


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DigPhotog: "Blurry" Background Photos - Depth of Field, etc. (W10-P1) [VID] Sp15

You like those "blurry" background photos?  Would you like to be able to take this type of photo?

The beauty of Depth of Field
Photo by yashh .   Used under Creative Commons.

If so, you'll need to control the depth of field in your photograph and in order to control depth of field, you'll need to better understand aperture.



For a partial introduction to depth of field and some other topics, check out the following video excerpt from Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)).  The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.




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Saturday, March 7, 2015

"Seefood" (New photo of mine on Flickr)



Title: "Seefood"
Photographer: William Hart, Ph.D.
http://bit.ly/1meoMVj
Description: "via Instagram bit.ly/1A1e0rL"
Taken: March 07, 2015 at 11:04AM
(C) William Hart






Thursday, March 5, 2015

GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Diffusion of Innovations (W8-P3) Sp15

Previously, development communication was defined as: "the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society."

Below is an example of a set of communication principles (or a theory) that has a long history of being applied to aid in development.

---

Everett Rogers
Diffusion of Innovations as an Approach to Development.

Everett Rogers wrote Diffusion of Innovations (1962, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2003).

What is an innovation?
  • An idea, object or practice...
  • Perceived as new...
  • By an individual or organization.


What is the diffusion of innovations?
  • An innovation ...
  • Communicated via channels...
  • Over time...
  • Among the members of a social system.




CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATIONS
The characteristics (or attributes) of innovations, as perceived by individuals, help to explain their rate of adoption.  Characteristics of innovations are one important set of variables influencing the rate of adoption.

  1. Relative Advantage
    1. Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes
    2. e.g. economic profitability, decrease in discomfort, savings in time and effort, immediacy of reward
  2. Compatibility
    1. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.
    2. Example: rap music and the role of MTV in making rap accessible and acceptable for all youth (Black & White).
  3. Complexity
    1. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use.
    2. Example: DOS vs. Windows
  4. Trialability
    1. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis.
  5. Observability
    1. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.
    2. Examples: solar panels & DBS, PrimeStar, DISH and the like

Given the above, how could diffusion of innovations (a communication theory) be used in development work?   How could diffusion of innovations be used to fight a health issue in a community or developing nation?  How could you use the characteristics of innovations to better fight a health issue in a community or developing nation?



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GlobalMedia: Development Communication: A History (Marshall Plan, etc.) (U8-P2) Sp15


"Uncle" Wilbur
A Historical Sketch of Development Communication

First a quick overview...

Dr. Wilbur Schramm
Founder of the social science study of communication (late 40s-50s) and key founder of development communication.
  • 1950s: 
    • Post-WWII & Cold War -- Newly independent nations struggling (the “terrible ascent”)
  • 1960s: 
    • Schramm: How to help them? His answer: w/ mass media - “the great multiplier.” Need to bring in mass media technology.
  • 1970s: 
    • Many countries implemented mass media programs.
  • 1980s: 
    • 1) Concern with “Neo-imperialism”
    • Hamid Mowlana
    • 2) Mowlana: users of mass media blind to the importance of traditional forms of communication in some societies/cultures. “Technology vs. Tradition” (Mowlana)
  • 1990s: 
    • Use of mass media to aid in development, but w/ caution regarding culture. Example: AIDS/HIV education in radio program in Tanzania & TV soap opera in China (Rogers)
  • 2000s: 
    • New issues and use of new communication technologies
(Sources: based on Mowlana, 1996, 1997, Stevenson, 1993, Rogers, 1997)



Now back to the 40s and 50s...

Coming out of World War II the U.S. was in good shape (economically, politically, etc.), but many of the nations of Europe faced problems.

To get a sense of the problem faces see CNN Perspectives Presents Cold War. (See also background info on this CNN series.)

Some of the series is available online.  As you watch the clips below pay close attention to the Marshall Plan.  What relationship does it have to development communication?

U.S. provided $$ and expertise in "reconstructing" Europe. U.S. foreign policy (lead by Truman) changed isolationism to “active leadership.” The U.S. offered the Marshall Plan* (more on Marshall Plan from CNN).

See the clips 0:00 to 1:50 and from 20:28 to 27:52



Why should the U.S. help European countries after WWII?

  1. humanitarian concerns (White Man’s Burden again?)
  2. stop spread of communism!

Truman Doctrine: to defend freedom & democracy worldwide.

Edward T. Hall
After reconstructing Europe Truman offered the world “the benefits of our [U.S.] scientific advances and industrial progress… for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.”

This was called the Point Four Program. (Director, Edward Hall)
One of the key tasks taken on by Hall was teaching U.S. diplomats intercultural communication skills. The formal study of intercultural communication can be traced back to Hall and this program.  Hall has been called the founding father of intercultural communication study.

The government lacked knowledge on how to develop nations, so they turned to academia. Development theories were developed in economics, psychology, political science, sociology, and communication. For example, Wilbur Schramm offered his theory/approach to development.  By the mid-70s, development programs were recognized an ineffective. Schramm, Rogers and others recognized the faults.

Everett M. Rogers
What was wrong? According to Rogers (1976)
The old way of doing development programs had the following errors:

  1. They assume infinite economic growth, ignore problems like population growth, pollution, etc., and do not take into account the "quality of life."
  2. They emphasize technology and capital rather than labor, thus encouraging economic dependence on advanced countries. Low priority to agriculture.
  3. It blames the developing countries for their failings, ignoring external factors beyond their control.
  4. It takes an ethnocentric (Western) bias by emphasizing the modernization of "traditional" individuals.
(Sources: International Encyclopedia of Communication, "Development Communication," 1989; "Marshall Plan" Britannica Online.].).

NOTE: Three of the scholars mentioned above (Mowlana, Hall and Rogers) were professors of mine.  They are part of my intellectual family.  And, now you are part of this intellectual family too.  As for Schramm, it actually turns out that I might be biologically related to "Uncle Wilbur."  Born in the same city, graduated from same undergrad college, same family tree roots, etc.


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GlobalMedia: Development Communication: Some Key Terms (W8-P1) Sp15




Define/explain the terms development, development communication and development journalism.


Development: "purposive changes undertaken in a society to achieve what may be regarded generally as a different ('improved') state of social and economic affairs"(Hern├índez-Ramos & Schramm, 1989).


Development projects typically focus on certain areas/issue of a society (e.g. agriculture, health, nutrition, family planning, women's empowerment, etc.)

Development communication: the use of communication technology and principles to aid in the development of a society.


Development journalism: a 'branch' of development communication in which news media are used.
Journalism: "the collection and editing of news for presentation through the media"(M-W Dictionary)



If you had lots of money (through a grant, etc.) and you wanted to do good in the world, what would you do?  If you wanted to help with some health issue in another country, what would you do?
If you wanted to help and you wanted to put your media knowledge and media skills to use, what would you do?



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More Secrets of Academic Success: Mnemonics and How to Use Them

Earlier I shared a variety of secrets to academic success (methods of studying, etc.) and I suggested learning tools like Quizlet.

Below is a continuation of that same conversation.

A mnemonic is "any learning technique that aids in information retention" (Wikipedia).
Mnemonic is pronounced like 'knee-monic' (think: a demon with really big knee caps).

There are several mnemonics or memory tricks that can help when learning new material.  The first video below defines and explains six tricks (acronyms, acrostics, the PEG system, image mnemonics, chunking and memory maps).



So, according to the video:
  • acronyms: "word or term is created from the first letter of each item to be remembered.
  • acrostics: "a complete sentence or series of words in which the first letter of each word stands for something to be remembered."
  • PEG system: "is useful for remembering numbers - uses key words which are represented by numbers."
  • image mnemonics: "the information to be recalled is constructed in the form of a picture that enhances memory."
  • chunking: "involves grouping individual pieces of information together in a way that makes them easier to remember."
  • mind map: "a visual pattern that can create a framework for improved recall."

Now, the last video covers the memory palace technique (my favorite).



How could you use the above memory tricks to learn course material or anything else you need to learn?

Study smarter, not harder.

If you are curious, you can find more information about mnemonics on YouTube and Google.



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Tuesday, March 3, 2015

DigPhotog: News & Tips - War, Women & Winners in Photography + MORE [VID]


NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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ResearchMethods: Media Research News: Science Improv, That Dress & Facebook Envy + MORE [VID]



NOTE: If for some reason your browser does not show the above news stories, then see the stories on Dr. Hart's Storify account at http://storify.com/WilliamHartPhD#stories. You may also want to consider updating your browser (Explorer or Chrome).


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