Wednesday, October 28, 2015

DigPhotog: Color: The Color Wheel and Color Schemes (W10-P1) [VID] Fa15


You are probably aware of the color wheel, but how does it fit into photography?  A color wheel is "an abstract illustrative organization of color hues around a circle that shows relationships between primary colors, secondary colors, tertiary colors etc"(Wikipedia).

This discussion of color fits into our previous discussion of composition.  You can use color to compose good photographs as well as using the rules of composition previously discussed.

Let's get some background on color theory.  Pay special attention to the color rules (color schemes) discussed.



Go to Adobe Color (aka Kuler) and explore the different color rules or color schemes.  Become familiar with the following four schemes/rules: analogous, monochromatic, triad and complementary colors.  Be able to define these four color schemes according to their relative positions on the color wheel.  For example, complementary colors are colors on the opposite side of the color wheel.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Tuesday, October 27, 2015

"Professors in Poverty • BRAVE NEW FILMS" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

Professors in Poverty • BRAVE NEW FILMS


"Meet Dr. Wanda Evans-Brewer. She has been teaching for 20 years, has a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree, and a PhD in Education. She is also living in poverty. SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/1JUX3Xv Today Professors in Poverty premieres at a Congressional briefing calling on politicians, colleges and universities to priorities adjunct professors and the quality of higher education in America now. And thanks to hundreds of small contributions Professors in Poverty is now available online for all to see. The corporate model of higher education is pushing professors into poverty and this model is a disaster. More than half of college faculty are adjunct – or part-time - professors. College tuition is rising at twice the rate of inflation. By hiring more adjuncts and less tenure track professors, colleges and universities are diminishing the quality of education for students and professors. Adjunct professors have limited access to resources like technology, office space, resources and they receive no benefits. 1 in 4 part-time faculty receive public assistance 31% if part-time faculty live near or below the poverty line $22,500 is the average salary of adjunct professors 60% of part-time professors have additional jobs Any professor living in poverty is unacceptable – especially when you consider the rising cost of tuition and the amount of money colleges and universities are taking in. This is wrong. Sign the petition demanding that colleges and universities prioritize adjunct professors now! This petition will be delivered to a Congressional briefing in late October on the issue of professors living in poverty. Join the movement in solidarity with adjunct professors everywhere! SIGN THE PETITION: http://bit.ly/1MSpUel SIGN UP for email updates: http://bit.ly/1P3Lnp5 Set up a free screening or house party for any of our films free: http://bit.ly/1MSpWmz Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1P3Lp0f Instagram: http://bit.ly/1MSpUem Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/BraveNewFilms DONATE: http://bit.ly/1P3Lnp6 WATCH OUR FULL FILMS FREE + NEW VIDEOS EVERY WEEK: http://bit.ly/1JUX3Xv ABOUT BRAVE NEW FILMS Robert Greenwald and Brave New Films are at the forefront of the fight to create a just America. Using new media and internet video campaigns, Brave New Films has created a quick-strike capability that informs the public, challenges corporate media with the truth, and motivates people to take action on social issues nationwide. Brave New Films’ investigative films have scrutinized the impact of U.S. drone strikes; the prosecution if whistleblowers; and Wal Mart’s corporate practices."
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/kbWFcqbefMs
Liked on October 27, 2015 at 10:25PM






"The Sherlock Special: New Trailer (With Title & Air Date)" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

The Sherlock Special: New Trailer (With Title & Air Date)


"Sherlock: The Abominable Bride, starring Benedict Cumberbatch and Martin Freeman, premieres Friday, Jan 1, 2016, 9pm ET on MASTERPIECE on PBS. #SherlockPBS"
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/nk86jSLufLs
Liked on October 27, 2015 at 12:02AM






Monday, October 26, 2015

"Nothing like getting up to watch the sun rise." (New photo of mine on Flickr)



Title: "Nothing like getting up to watch the sun rise."
Photographer: William Hart, Ph.D.
http://bit.ly/1meoMVj
Description: "via Instagram bit.ly/1GDRxuK"
Taken: October 26, 2015 at 08:58AM
(C) William Hart






Friday, October 23, 2015

"THE 7 HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PEOPLE BY STEPHEN COVEY - ANIMATED BOOK REVIEW" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

THE 7 HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PEOPLE BY STEPHEN COVEY - ANIMATED BOOK REVIEW


"The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey (summary, review). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People is one of the most influential books in self-development. It has always been one of my favorites and I definitely recommend reading it. Habit 1 (0:00) : Be proactive. Habit 2 (1:30) : Begin with the end in mind. Habit 3 (2:19) : Put first things first. Habit 4 (2:55) : Think win-win. Habit 5 (3:54) : Seek first to understand, then to be understood. Habit 6 (4:33) : Synergize. Habit 7 (5:10) : Sharpen the saw. If you would rather get the ideas on Facebook first, you can join FightMediocrity on Facebook here: http://on.fb.me/1GnJJxz BRAND NEW FIGHTMEDIOCRITY TWITTER PAGE: https://twitter.com/fghtmediocrity"
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/ktlTxC4QG8g
Liked on October 23, 2015 at 11:55PM






DigPhotog: Controlling Light: What is HDR photography and what is it good for? [VID] (W9-P4) Fa15

You've heard of HDR photos?

What is an HDR photo? What does HDR stand for? What type of photography is HDR good for?What apps (software) are needed?

How To: HDR photography for iPhone and Android (CNET TV)


What is bracketing and what does it have to do with HDR photos?
In short, bracketing is "taking the same photo more than once using different settings for different exposures"




Secrets of Amazing HDR Photography (revision3)
See the first 5 minutes or so.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


Check out some fine HDR photos at BlametheMonkey.com.  When looking at the photos on this site slide the vertical line back and forth to see the standard version of the photo vs. the HDR version.  
Also see comparisons at Tim Clarke's site.  What is the difference between a normal photo and a HDR photo?  What preferences do you have?  Do you like HDR photos?  Pros and cons of HDR?



Quick HDR Landscape Tutorial
Play from 0:00 to 2:15.  Save the remaining for later when we discuss photo editing.


What is spot metering and what does it have to do with HDR photography?
Spot metering is a setting on a camera in which "the photographer [takes] control over exactly which portion of the frame [or image in the view finder] the meter should use to determine proper exposure."


Pro HDR App Tutorial on iPhone 4 (with Example Images!)


Pro-HDR - an app that allows you to take HDR photos.
Note: Try the free version first, if you can find it.

Another HDR app that is currently available as a free version is HDR FX Photo Editor (Free) which is available on Android.

There is also a limited HDR feature on iPhones and iPads. Check this video, if interested.


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Controlling Light: White Balance (W9-P3) Fa15


Photo credit: Anthony Quintano (cc)
Ever taken a photo like the one to the right where the photo looks a little yellowish?  This is a lighting problem. More specifically, this is a white balance problem.

Miokte defines white balance as "the camera setting used to correct any subtle color shifts in an image that sometimes occur in different kinds of light.  The white balance setting can be set by either the camera or the photographer, depending on the camera model."

Whenever you take a photograph and you have your camera set on automatic, your camera looks out into the world and makes decisions about what settings to use for ISO, shutter speed and f-stop.  We've discussed this previously.  Along with ISO, shutter speed and f-stop, the camera also makes decisions about the white balance.  And, sometimes it makes a good decision and sometimes it makes a bad decision (like in the photo to the right).  When your camera can't seem to get it right, that is the time for you to step in and change the white balance yourself.  But, how?  Why?



Now with some basics out of the way, let's see specifically how to use white balance setting when taking a photo.






Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Thursday, October 22, 2015

MassMedia: Visual Media: Ideological Criticism: How to Do Ideological Criticism (W9-P3) Fa15

How to Do Ideological Criticism (according to Foss)

“The primary goal of the ideological critic is to discover and make visible the dominant ideology or ideologies embedded in an artifact and ideologies that are being muted in it” (Foss, p. 295-296).

  • Step 1: Formulate RQs
    • What is the ideology embodied in this artifact?
    • What are the implication of this ideology?
    • What are the alternative ideologies not expressed?
    • Are there aspects of the artifact that support emancipation? Etc.
  • Step 2: Select Unit of Analysis
    • What specific aspect(s) of the artifact/text will you focus on?
  • Step 3: Analyzing the Artifact
    • Identification of Nature of Ideology
      • What does the artifact ask the audience to believe, understand, feel or think about?
      • What are the arguments made in the artifact?
      • What is seen as good or valued?
      • What ideologies are hidden?
    • Identification of Interests Included
      • What is the power structure and what groups are supported?
    • Identification of Strategies in Support of Ideology
      • How does the rhetoric legitimize the ideology and interests of some groups over others?
      • How exactly is the dominant ideology supported?
      • How exactly are alternative ideologies hidden?

Source: Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Visual Media: Ideological Criticism: Basic Concepts (W9-P2) Fa15

We all, more than likely, watch a lot of film and TV.  How much do we carefully think about what we watch?  What are ways of analyzing, critiquing and better understanding these texts? One means of analyzing a film or TV program is to do an ideological critique of it.

What is ideological criticism? How do you do an ideological critique of a film or television series?


Ideological Criticism:

For our purposes here, ideological criticism is a particular type of rhetorical criticism.

Previously, we've gotten an idea of what rhetorical criticism is.  So, what is ideological criticism?  What is an ideology?

Ideology:
  • “A system of shared meaning that represents the world for us; it gives us a common picture of of reality” (p. 296).
  • “A pattern or set of ideas, assumptions, beliefs, values, or interpretations of the world by which a culture or group operates” (Foss, p. 291).
An ideology is a characteristic of a group.  Groups have ideologies that individuals in those groups follow.  In a diverse society with many different groups, it is typically the ideology of the dominant group that is promoted in that society.

So, an ideology shapes the way we see the world, what we pay attention to and what we do not.

What purpose does an ideology serve?  Where does an ideology come from?

And now to some related terms.

1. Hegemony:
  • “the process by which a social order remains stable by generating consent to its parameters through the production and distribution of ideological texts that define social reality for the majority of the people.” (from Rybacki & Rybacki, Oprah article)
What are these ideological texts?  Books, newspapers, web sites, political speeches, movies, etc.

So, these media texts develop in us an ideological perspective?  They tell us how we should think?  How we should view the world?

2. False consciousness:
  • “a failure to recognize the instruments of one's oppression or exploitation as one's own creation, as when members of an oppressed class unwittingly adopt views of the oppressor class” (American Heritage Dictionary).
So, there are somethings that we may not be aware of, we don't see?
So, we can live in a dominant ideology and be blind to other ways of seeing?


With these above concepts in mind, let's look at ideological criticism. Ideological criticism is a means of bringing often overlooked ideologies out into the light for all to see.

The Basic Argument of Ideological Criticism
  1. “When an ideology becomes hegemonic in a culture, certain interests or groups are served by it more than others – it represents the perspective of some groups more than others” (Foss, p. 294).
  2. “When an ideology becomes hegemonic through a process of accord and consent, it accumulates ‘the symbolic power to map or classify the world for others…’ It invites ‘us to understand the world in certain ways, but not in others’” (Foss, p. 295).
  3. “To maintain a position of dominance, a hegemonic ideology must be constructed, renewed, reinforced, and defended continually through the use of rhetorical strategies and practices” (Foss, p. 295).
How is the hegemonic ideology maintained? Who? With what?  Those of us in the media, are we responsible?

What film or television series would you do an ideological critique of and why?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Composition in Photography and Film (W9-P1) [VID] Fa15

We've covered previously some basic rules of composition in photography.  Now let's add a little more to that discussion of composition in still photography and then we'll move to composition in film.

Within still photography composition, other topic worthy of discussion is Itten's contrasts.






Composition in Film 

After you learned about composition in still photography (rule of thirds, framing, etc.), did you start to spot those same rules being used in your favorite TV show or movie?  If not, look for it the next time you are watching TV or a movie.

Take, for example, the Tarantino film, Kill Bill.


Just focus on the rule of thirds.  How often do you see the rule of thirds?  How is it used?



Now, you try it.  Go to YouTube (or another video source) and look for clips of a favorite movie. See how many rules of composition you see being used.  Besides the rule of thirds, what else do you see? Framing?



So, some rules of still photography can be applied in film.
What are some rules of composition unique to film?

Note the four rules of composition that can be used in video work which are discussed below.




And now, on to some more aspects of video composition.

Q: What is the rule of composition that cant' be used well in still photography?
A: Movement

For some keen lessons on composing with movement let's go to the master, Akira Kurosawa, famed Japanese film director.  Note the specific rules of movement discussed.







Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Wednesday, October 21, 2015

MediaTech: Cell Phones and the Consequences of Tech: More on Digital Divide (Rogers) (W9-P4) Fa15

Why is there a digital divide?  There are many answers to that, but one way to look at it is to see it in the context of the diffusion of innovations.
Put another way, 
  • those with cash can afford to get the costly innovation.  Price usually higher at first.  
  • Change agents (in this case: marketers, advertisers, sales people), focus on those people with the cash.  So, maybe only those with the cash, learn about the product.
  • Those with cash, tell those with cash.
  • If those with cash get adopt the innovation, then they benefit from it.  Imagine when cell phone just came out.  Those who could afford to buy the cell phone had advantages over those people who could not afford it.  Maybe those with cash can more easily get there business phone calls and then make even more money. Those who did not have the cell phone missed that important business call and lost the money.
  • Imagine this process repeating again and again.  The gap between the two groups widens.  


How to fix this gap, this digital divide?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: Cell Phones and the Consequences of Tech: The Digital Divide (W9-P3) Fa15



Quickly browse some the Current News on the Digital Divide


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: Cell Phones and the Consequences of Tech: Types of Consequences (Rogers) (W9-P2) Fa15



Think of desirable and undesirable consequences as the good and bad consequences of adopting an innovation.  Desirable = good, positive.  Undesirable = bad, negative.

What would be some desirable or good consequences of university students adopting cell/smart phones?
What would be some undesirable consequences?


As for direct and indirect, think of consequences as chain of consequences.

Adopt an innovation ---> direct consequence  ---> indirect consequence  -----> indirect consequence.

For example, if you adopt a new 3-D HDTV, then you can then you invite all your friends over and be "the talk of the town."  Now, that you are popular among your friends, you fell the pressure to keep inviting your new "friends" over (indirect consequence).  Now you lose time and money time and money entertaining your new friends (indirect consequence).  Which leads to you not having the time to spend on other important things in your life (indirect consequence).  The loss of time is not a direct consequence, but an indirect consequence.

Anticipated consequences are those that you think are going to happen if you adopt the innovation.  The unanticipated consequences are those that you don't see coming.  For example, you adopt that newest, expensive, tech toy and it is great.  You can do all sorts of things with it.  However, you didn't think about the struggle of paying off the bill for the new toy.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: Cell Phones and the Consequences of Tech: Cell Phones, Smartphones and Media Convergence (W9-P1) Fa15





What is a smartphone?

"A cellular telephone with built-in applications and Internet access. In addition to digital voice service, modern smartphones provide text messaging, e-mail, Web browsing, still and video cameras, MP3 player and video playback and calling. In addition to their built-in functions, smartphones run myriad free and paid applications, turning the once single-minded cellphone into a mobile personal computer. For an overview of included and nice-to-have features..." (PCMag.com)

What's the difference between a cell phone and a smartphone?  How does a dumb phone fit in here?  

How does the banana phone fit in?  :)






Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: Cell Phones, Popcorn and the Consequences of Cell Phone Tech (W9) [VID] Fa15


If I say popcorn and cell phones, what pops into your mind?  Excuse the pun.  Pop.

Seen the videos on the Internet that show people using cell phones to pop popcorn?

Are there health concerns you have when using cell phones?
That is, is there a serious consequence of us adopting cell phones?

Be sure to stop the video at 3 minutes in and do a little thinking.





Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Exposure and Histograms (W9-P2) Fa15


In the field of statistics, a histogram is "a graphical representation of the distribution of data."  The histogram below shows the distribution of black cherry trees according to height.  Note that there are many trees between 70 and 80 inches tall and a few that are 60-65 inches tall and even fewer that are 85-90 inches tall.













Graphic credit: Mwtoews. Used under Creative Commons

In the field of photography, a histogram is defined in a similar way.  It is a graphical representation of data.  But, what data?  A histogram for a photograph is "a graphical representation of the tonal distribution in a digital image.  It plots the number of pixels for each tonal value."  The tones in a photograph range from shadows (the darker areas or pixels) to midtones (grey areas or pixels) to highlights (the white or bright areas of the photograph).  A photograph which is underexposed, for example, would have lots of shadow.

For visuals and further discussion see the videos below.



A key question: How could you use a histogram to determine if your photos have proper exposure?




A good app for showing the histogram on both iOS and Android is called PicsPlay.  Get the free version first.


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: "Blurry" Background Photos - Depth of Field, etc. (W9-P1) [VID] Fa15

You like those "blurry" background photos?  Would you like to be able to take this type of photo?

The beauty of Depth of Field
Photo by yashh .   Used under Creative Commons.

If so, you'll need to control the depth of field in your photograph and in order to control depth of field, you'll need to better understand aperture.



For a partial introduction to depth of field and some other topics, check out the following video excerpt from Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)).  The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.





Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Thursday, October 15, 2015

MassMedia: Audio Media: 4 Songs for Rhetorical Analysis (W8-P4) [VID] Fa15


What would a rhetorical analysis look like for the following songs?
Notice how they are paired together.


Nina Simone - Mississippi Goddamn. Live Version (lyrics)



Steve Earle -- "Mississippi, It's Time"



Bruce Springsteen - Born in the U.S.A. (lyrics)



Rihanna - American Oxygen (lyrics)





Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Audio Media: Rhetorical Criticism, "Ohio" & Kent State (W8-P3) [VID] Fa15


Quantitative research papers which use methods like experiments, surveys, and content analysis typically follow a certain format.

Quantitative research paper outline:

  1. Introduction 
  2. Review of literature
  3. Research question(s)/hypothesis
  4. Methods 
  5. Results
  6. Discussion 
  7. References

Rhetorical criticism papers usually take a different approach.

Writing the Rhetorical Criticism Essay (based on S.K. Foss)
  • Introduction
    • Identify artifact (or text to be studied), RQ, Contribution to Theory, Hint of Justification (why is it important to study?)
  • Description of the Artifact
    • Text, Context & Justification
  • Description of the Unit of Analysis
    • What specifically about the text is being studied?
      • Determined by method
  • Report of the Findings of the Analysis
    • Bulk of the essay
    • Organization determined by method
  • Contributing to Answering the Research Question
    • Answer RQ, implications of research results, significance of research results
  • References

In the introduction the author identifies the artifact or text being studied (e.g., a TV commercial) and indicates research questions (RQs) they want to answer (e.g., what words or phrases are used and what role do they play in persuading?).  The author would also indicate how their study adds to previously developed theory and also give some indication of why their study is important.

In the description of the artifact (or text), the author would describe the details about the text (who, what, where, when, etc.).  There is no analysis yet, just the facts about the text. The author would also provide some context for the text.  For example, if an author were analyzing a protest song of the 1960s, the author would want to provide description of what was happening in U.S. society at the time (Vietnam War, assassinations, civil rights, etc.).  The author would elaborate more on why their research, their paper is important.  That is, give justification for why their work should be read.


Lyrics for "Ohio".  If you are interested in some context, see Kent State shootings article.

In the description of the unit of analysis, the author indicates what specific aspect of the text will be studied.  For example, a researcher studying a presidential debate may just focus on the nonverbal aspects of the debate.

The author then spends most of the essay going through their analysis detail by detail from the beginning of the text to the end.

After a detailed analysis, the author closes by offering an answer to the initial research question(s), talks about  what their findings mean for future research and stresses the importance of their research.



If you did some rhetorical criticism on a song or a set of songs that you especially like, what would they be and what do you think you'd find?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Audio Media: Textual Analysis of Songs and Commercials (W8-P2) [VID] Fa15

To answer research questions (RQs) researchers use research methods.

The four main research methods, at least in the social sciences, are experiments, surveys, ethnographies and textual analyses.

A researcher who does textual analysis is a researcher who studies a particular text or set of texts.  A text is a communication artifact. A text could be written, visual, electronic, etc.  Examples of a text are an email, a news broadcast, a film, a recorded conversation, an advertisement, a speech, an editorial cartoon or a song.

There are two main types of textual analysis.  One is more quantitative and the other is more qualitative research.

Content analysis is "a form of textual analysis used to identify, enumerate, and analyze occurrences of specific messages and message characteristics embedded in relevant texts" (Frey, et al.)

An example of content analysis would be a researcher who studies post 9/11 editorial cartoons to determine how the enemy is portrayed in the cartoons by categorizing and counting up the occurrences of certain types of portrayals.

Rhetorical criticism, on the other hand, is more qualitative.

Rhetorical criticism: "research involving the description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of persuasive uses of communication" (Frey, et al)

Notice how rhetorical criticism focuses on persuasive texts, texts that potentially influence an audience.

There is a long history to rhetorical criticism from ancient times to modern times.

A person doing rhetorical criticism may study, for example, campaign speeches or advertisements to analyze how the text attempted to persuade and how effective it was in persuading.

Check out below the older Pepsi radio ad.  What are the ways in which the commercial attempts to persuade?  What about their choice of words. Also, how effective are they?




So, campaign speeches and commercials are persuasive texts and thus they are texts that could be analyzed using rhetorical criticism.  However, what about songs?  Are songs texts that could be rhetorically critiqued? Some songs?  All songs?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Audio Media: Parts of a Song (W8-P1) [VID]

There are a variety of genres of popular music: blues, country, rock, pop, rap, etc.

No matter your favorite genre of music, generally the song lyrics are structured in the same way.

Parts of Popular Songs (Lyrics)
  • Title
  • Intro* -- unique section before 1st verse
  • Verse -- 2 or more sections; different words, but similar music and lyrical structure.
  • Chorus (aka: refrain, hook, etc.) -- section which is repeated in song
  • Bridge* -- connects 2 parts of song; different musically and lyrically; may replace 3rd verse; “pleasant surprise”
  • Outro (aka: coda, tag, etc.)* -- additional “lyrics” tagged on after the final verse/chorus
* Optional

Watch and listen to the following and see if you spot the parts.  Which parts?  Where?



Try to spot the parts in your favorite songs.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Wednesday, October 14, 2015

MediaTech: Internet/New Media: Basic: The Jobs-Gates Rivalry (W8-P3) [VID] Fa15



"Are you a pirate?"  What's that mean?  Is that a good thing or a bad thing?
Any life lessons you learn from this movie?
Any career lessons you learn from this movie?


The Pirates of Silicon Valley tells the story of the Jobs-Gates rivalry from the early 1970s until the late 1990s.



The following video interview of Jobs' biographer picks up the Jobs-Gates story where Pirates left off.





For a humorous, but insightful look at the rivalry you might also want to check out the "Steve Jobs vs Bill Gates. Epic Rap Battle."


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: Internet/New Media: The Basics: What is a Blog, RSS and RSS Reader? (W8-P2) [VID] Fa15

What is a blog?  How do you blog (steps in the process)?



What is the relationship between a blog and Twitter or Facebook?  What is a micro-blog?

What are ways you can read and/or subscribe to a blog?  What's an RSS and how does it work?





Feedly is a popular example of a RSS reader.



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: Internet/New Media: The Basics: How Email Works (W8-P1) [VID] Fa15

How does email work?  What are the steps in the process?  The parts?




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Online Camera Simulators to Help Understand Aperture, Shutter Speed, etc. (W8-P2) Fa15


There are two very useful online camera simulators that I'd recommend to help you get a better understanding of aperture, shutter speed and other aspects of photography.

1. Start with Photonhead's "SimCam - Shutter and Aperture" page. It'll allow you to control a few features of the camera.  What settings would get you those blurry background photos?  Why?   Also, try out the film speed or ISO simulator.  Make changes in the settings and then take the photo (i.e. click on "shoot it").  Before clicking the shoot it button make a guess on what the new photo will look like.  Work with the simulations until your guess match the resulting photo.

2. Also, try CameraSim.com. Once you've gotten comfortable for Photonheads camera simulator, then move on to this more complicated simulator.  You can try the embed below (if it appears for you) or go directly to the site.




In addition to adjusting the shutter, aperture and mode, try adjusting the distance you are to the child and also zoom in or zoom out with the focal length setting.

When you are working with both of these simulators, it is important that after you change some settings and before you press the click button, that you make a guess as to what you think the simulated photograph will look like. Only stop messing with these simulators, once you get all your guesses right.




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Controlling Light (F-Stops, Shutter Speed, ISO, etc.) (W8-P1) [VID] Fa15

As a photographer, your task is to control lightYou are a master of light.

When you turn that dial from "auto" to "manual", you are taking control of the light coming into your camera.  Two key ways of controlling the amount of light coming into your camera are by setting the f-stop and the shutter speed.

For a partial introduction to f-stops and shutter speed, check out the following video excerpt from Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)). The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.




F-stops and shutter speeds are not the only ways you can control light.  You can adjust the ISO settings or use flash, for example.  You can adjust f-stops, shutter speeds, ISO, flash, etc. to get just the right amount of light into your camera -- that perfect exposure.



"Let's Get Techie" does a good job of adding some further details.  Note the exposure triangle.




There are apps that allow you to see the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO settings for your photographs.  If you recall, the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO data and other data (e.g., date, time, GPS location) is what is called EXIF data.  For android devices one EXIF viewer app is Simple Exif Viewer.  For iOS devices an EXIF viewer app is Exif Viewer. A Google search will also show EXIF viewers for laptops and desktops.

Use one of the EXIF viewers and check the f-stop, shutter speed and ISO settings for your photographs. See if the settings or values make sense.  For example, would an ISO setting/value of 800 for an indoor photo make sense?  Why?   Would a shutter speed of 1/2 second for a blurry sports photo make sense?  Why?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Monday, October 12, 2015

"Columbus Was a Genocidal Rapist | Decoded | MTV News" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

Columbus Was a Genocidal Rapist | Decoded | MTV News


"Franchesca Ramsey: https://twitter.com/chescaleigh Brought to you with love by: http://mtvother.com Produced by: http://bit.ly/1RAMZVA Anadarko, Oklahoma has become the most recent city in the US to get rid of “Columbus Day” in favor of “Indigenous Peoples’ Day.” So why the change? Well, Christopher Columbus was actually a pretty terrible person, making celebrating him seem pretty pointless. Here are 5 reasons why we should get rid of his holiday. Let us know what you think in the comments below! For more on racial bias, check out http://bit.ly/1G1flZA Subscribe to MTV News: http://bit.ly/1VOkx4z More from MTV News: Official MTV News Website: http://on.mtv.com/1G1fkot Like MTV News: http://on.fb.me/1G1fkow Follow MTV News: https://twitter.com/mtvnews MTV News Google+: http://bit.ly/1VOkvd8 MTV News on Tumblr: http://bit.ly/1G1flZH MTV News Instagram: http://bit.ly/1VOkvd9 MTV News on Pinterest: http://bit.ly/1VOkvda"
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/UbG7VbebC_Y
Liked on October 12, 2015 at 12:53PM






Friday, October 9, 2015

"Mother Outs Textbooks That Call Slave Trade Worker Migration Instead" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

Mother Outs Textbooks That Call Slave Trade Worker Migration Instead


"A woman in Houston is going after a textbook publisher in Texas for whitewashing history. Her son’s 9th grade history text book portrayed the Atlantic Slave Trade merely as worker migration. The mother was upset because she feels it downplays the effects of slavery. Cenk Uygur and Ana Kasparian (The Point) hosts of The Young Turks discuss. Do you think the textbook company was whitewashing history? Why are schools beginning to downplay the role slavery played in the history of the US? Let us know in the comments below. Read more here: http://wapo.st/1P4xUi2 “Mothers of teenagers are used to getting frustrating text messages, but the one that Roni Dean-Burren received from her 15-year-old son last week wasn’t about alcohol, dating or money for the movies. It was about history. Her son, Coby, had sent her a photo of a colorful page in his ninth-grade McGraw-Hill World Geography textbook. In a section titled “Patterns of Immigration,” a speech bubble pointing to a U.S. map read: “The Atlantic Slave Trade between the 1500s and 1800s brought millions of workers from Africa to the southern United States to work on agricultural plantations.” “We was real hard workers wasn’t we,” Coby retorted in a subsequent text.” ********** The Young Turks October 5, 2015 Hour 2 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLTpcK80irdQjMimvPqb1yaIMQsW41UNe- Father Defends Babysitter Who Raped His Young Son https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dFlKQ48NsC4&list=PLTpcK80irdQjMimvPqb1yaIMQsW41UNe-&index=1 Cop Beats Suspect With Shotgun (VIDEO) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaMoP46soZU&list=PLTpcK80irdQjMimvPqb1yaIMQsW41UNe-&index=2 Mother Outs Textbooks That Call Slave Trade Worker Immigration Instead https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AchbyMGMBE&list=PLTpcK80irdQjMimvPqb1yaIMQsW41UNe-&index=3 Amber Rose Breaks Down Over Kanye/Wiz Khalifa (VIDEO) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPPcSDhuXis&list=PLTpcK80irdQjMimvPqb1yaIMQsW41UNe-&index=4 Selfie Sorority Girls Do Some Good With Their Moment Of Fame https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O87KjJ0HUJg&list=PLTpcK80irdQjMimvPqb1yaIMQsW41UNe-&index=5 ********** The Largest Online News Show in the World. Hosted by Cenk Uygur and Ana Kasparian. LIVE STREAMING weekdays 6-8pm ET. http://www.youtube.com/theyoungturks/live Young Turk (n), 1. Young progressive or insurgent member of an institution, movement, or political party. 2. Young person who rebels against authority or societal expectations. (American Heritage Dictionary) ********** Get The Young Turks​ Mobile App Today! Download the iOS version here: http://apple.co/1VJHPsx Download the Android version here: http://bit.ly/1VJHPsz"
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/4AchbyMGMBE
Liked on October 9, 2015 at 04:59PM






Thursday, October 8, 2015

MassMedia: Print Media: Adapting a Story from Novel to Film [VID] (W7-P4) Fa15

In adaptation studies, adaptation is the process of a story changing as it moves from one form to another. Example: Harry Potter books to Harry Potter films. It could also be from a video game to a film, from a play to a film, etc.

One of the key concepts in adaptation studies is infidelityInfidelity is a measure of how different an adaptation is from the original source. How different is the film from the novel, for example?

For those writers who adapt stories from novel to film, they face a challenge. How to get the story from a 300 page novel to a 90 page/minute script? Scenes have to be excluded, characters have to combined, etc.

Which is better? The book or the movie? Is that a fair question to ask? There seems to be bias to always choosing the book.

Very often when adaptation scholars look at infidelity their attention is put on what is left out, but not why it is left out? James Patterson's novel Kiss the Girls was adapted into a 1997 film. While the novel addressed issues of race and included an interracial romance, the film adaptation did not. Why?  For answers to this, see Hart, W. B., (2012). The case of the missing interracial romance.




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Entertainment: Hero's Journey (U7-P3) Fa15



Previously, we've covered how to write a story based on the three-act structure (e.g., Syd Field's approach). Now let's take a look at a different way of writing a story. Joseph Campbell first identified what he called the Hero's Journey, common story structure found around the world. He found this common story structure in a vast number of old myths from around the world.  Novelists and film directors started using Campell's work when they were writing their own stories.  The most famous example of a film which was shaped by Campbell's work is George Lucas' Star Wars. After the success of Star Wars, many script writers began using the Campbell's ideas. Today there are a number of books on how to use Cambell's ideas in script writing.

However, let's skip the books and get some insight from the videos below.

Let's start with archetypal characters found in many stories.



Now with an understanding of the common archetypal characters, let's look specifically at the hero's journey itself.



You spot the Hero's Journey in any of your favorite films?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Print Media: Telling a Good Story (W7-P2) Fa15

Previously, we covered the key components of a story and key things to keep in mind to strengthen a story.

In an earlier post we covered: "Plot – story should start with exposition, then conflict, escalating conflict, leading to final climax and then to resolution."

Now, let's look closer at plot.  The could be the plot of a novel or the plot of a film.


When it comes to Hollywood films, one of the key experts on how to tell a story and how to construct a plot is Syd Field.

Field defines a screenplay as “a story told with pictures, in dialogue and description, and placed within the context of dramatic structure."

Field promotes his version of a the three act structure as shown below.



Setup (Act I): Let the audience know who the main character is and what the story is about. Identify the need of the main character.
Confrontation (Act II): The main character needs something and there will be people/things that stop him/her.
Resolution (Act III): How does the story end? What happens to the main character? Need met or not?
Plot Point: “an incident, or event, that hooks into the story and spins it around into another direction” (Field).

What the following trailer of Die Hard and look for the acts.  Do you spot Plot Point 1 at the end of Act I? What happens at the Christmas party?


Now, think about your favorite films.  Do you see this same structure?

Developing a full or even partial screenplay is beyond the scope of things here, but it is now possible given the what we've covered, to develop a film treatment.

A film or screenplay treatment is a one page synopsis of a film yet to be produced.  It is typically written before the full script.

Could you write a treatment for the next big film written by you?


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MassMedia: Print Media: Storytellers (W7-P1) Fa15

People who work in media are, for the most part, storytellers.  Whether we are writing a print news story, a novel, a children's book, a non-fiction book, a commercial, a song, a comedy skit, etc., we are telling stories in some form or another.  We are storytellers.

What are the common components of a story?

  • Writer of story
  • Characters in story - hero, villain, etc.
  • Setting(s) - where the story happens
  • Plot - what happens in the story
    • Conflict - internal or external
  • Dialogue - what the characters say
  • Exposition - information about character, setting, etc.
  • Premise - what is it about
  • A moral or theme - the lesson of the story

Does a novel have all of these components?  A children's book?  A print news story?  You may not call it "plot" in a print news story, but it is there.  What about a song or a commercial?

Do you see the story components in this trailer of the film adaptation of Where the Wild Things Are?





Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Wednesday, October 7, 2015

MediaTech: TV/Radio Tech (Basics): How Early TV Worked (W7-P3) [VID] Fa15


How did TV work?*  How did early TV work?  What was the process?  What are the steps?



For next video start at about 40 seconds in.


If you are interested: "The Origins of Television" Discovery Channel clip

*Some of the same principles still apply to today's TV tech.


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: TV/Radio Tech (Basics): How Radio Works (W7-P2) Fa15


Before talking about how radio works, it is first helpful to understand the electromagnetic spectrum.  What is the electromagnetic spectrum?




Now, how does radio fit into this?  What does it have to do with the spectrum?  The following video provides a good overview.



Now some detail from decades ago. While the specific tech shown is from decades ago, the basic principles still apply today. Spot the steps in signal processing?



For a quick summary on how radio works, see this quick vid.





Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






MediaTech: Attributes that Influence Adoption of Innovations [VID] (W7-P1) Fa15

What makes an innovation spread?  What makes the rate of adoption increase?  What are the key factors according to diffusion of innovation theory?  What are the characteristics (or attributes) of an innovation that makes it quickly become adopted?  




Specifically, what are the attributes of the innovation that make it spread?

























Let's first think about these attributes in the context of early radio?  Do you see the attributes mentioned in the adoption of early radio.

See from about 0:30 to about 9:00 in the video below.



Now, how do these attributes of an innovation apply to the diffusion of social media like Facebook, Twitter, etc.?



Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Tuesday, October 6, 2015

HistMedia: A History of a Science: Thomas Kuhn (W9-P1) Fa15

Now that we've covered, to some degree, the three big names of Darwin, Freud and Marx, we can start to see their influence on communication study.

Next we'll take a look at some particular sub-fields within communication study and discover the influence of the big 3 on those specific sub-fields.

However, to do that, we need a good understanding of Thomas Kuhn and his concept of scientific revolutions.

Earlier we talked about study of history in general, now, with the help of Kuhn, we will look at the history of science, our science -- communication study.



Note: Earlier the readings for this course, we covered Kuhn's concepts of paradigm and paradigm shift.

While not as visually appealing, let's also take a quick look at this informative description of Kuhn and his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.




Kuhn's theory of scientific development can be used to understand the history of communication study and specific sub-fields within the discipline of communication.

For example see:
Rogers, E. M. & Hart, W. B. (2002). The histories of intercultural, development, and international communication. In W. B. Gudykunst and B. Moody (Eds.), Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication, 2nd Edition (pp. 1-18). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications.

Kuhn's ideas have also been used to tell paradigmatic history of agenda-setting theory.

Rogers, E. M., Hart, W. B. & Dearing, J. W. (1997). A paradigmatic history of agenda-setting research. In S. Iyengar & R. Reeves (Eds.). Do the Media Govern?: Politicians, Voters, and Reporters in America (pp. 225-236). Thousand Oaks: CA, Sage Publications.

Before reading the agenda-setting chapter, it may be helpful to get a good grasp of the basics of agenda-setting theory.



Did you spot the parts of paradigmatic history just in this short video?




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






HistMedia: The Deep Roots of Communication Study- MARX (W7-P2) Fa15

As a means of supplementing this week's reading on Marx, let's play connect the dots. Let's connect the dots from Marx, to the Frankfurt School, to music on the radio. Finally, mass media.

Marx


The Frankfurt School (Horkheimer, et. al.)


Adorno and Music on the Radio (What is Good Music?)





Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






HistMedia: The Deep Roots of Communication Study- DARWIN cont'd (W7-P1) Fa15

The previous video clip introduced us to the life of Darwin and some of some of his key evolutionary concepts (e.g., natural selection and artificial selection).

As a means of summarizing the process of evolution. Carl Sagan's explanation of it.

One of the best explanations of biological evolution and the mechanism that drives evolution is found in Carl Sagan's Cosmos video series which was based on the book Cosmos. In the following video Sagan describes the process of artificial selection.  As you are watching this clip from Cosmos, be sure to identify and be able to explain the mechanism that drives evolution. Does this mechanism explain technological evolution?  Do technologies evolve?

Let's start first in Japan some time ago and the story of a drowned boy-emperor, a small crab and the idea of artificial selection.







In this short clip the process is explained in a different way. Slow the process down and catch each step. It starts with organisms vary.



Now, that we have a grasp of Darwin's life and his concept of evolution, let's ask ourselves: so what?  What that have to do with communication study?  Where does Darwin fit in?


According to Rogers (p. 64), Darwin had four key contributions (direct and indirect) to communication study .

1. Influenced Karl Marx and his formulation of dialectical materialism.
2. Shaped Herbert Spencer's concept of social Darwinism [vid].  This, in turn, influenced to some degree the work of early sociologists Charles Horton Cooley and Robert E. Park.  These two sociologist had strong influence on early communication scholars.
3. With the publication of his book, The Expression of the Emotions in Men and Animals, in 1873, Darwin helped start the study of nonverbal communication.

For our purposes here, we'll drop Rogers' original 4th contribution and add our own.  Based on our earlier coverage of Freud, we can add a 4th (indirect) contribution of Darwin.
4. Influence on Freud and the animalistic nature of the id.




Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Monday, October 5, 2015

DigPhotog: Basic Tech: How Does a Digital Camera Work? [VID] (W7-P2) Fa15

Before we move further with understanding the settings on a camera, let's take a look at how the camera works on the inside.  Understanding how it works on the inside, helps with the understanding of how and why the settings do what they do.

Let's start with, how does a digital camera work? What are the steps in the process (a list of the steps)?
Along with this, what are the parts of the camera relevant to a discussion of how it works (a list of the parts)?

How DSLR Cameras Work


Let's take a look at the process again, in a slightly different way.



If you'd like to learn more, I'd recommend two additional YouTube videos: (1) the more detailed "How Digital Cameras Really Work" and the longer "How Does a Camera Work?".


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






DigPhotog: Basic Tech: Film vs. Digital and Steps to Taking a Digital Photograph [VID] (W7-P1) Fa15


So, advances in technology have brought us the digital camera.  However, just because it is new tech, does that mean digital photography is better than film photography?

Compared to traditional film photography, what are the benefits of digital photography?   In the video below, two benefits are offered.*  To that list we can add: (3) digital photography allows for a smaller storage space and (4) digital photography allows for easy editing.

Note the key photography terms defined in the video?  Watch for the misspelling in the clip?



So, it can be argued that digital is better.  But, how to take a digital photograph?  What is the process? What are the steps in the process?

Technical Steps to Taking a Photograph (camera set-up, etc.)





If you are looking for videos that explain the technical basics of digital photography, I'd recommend Brian Ratty's video series (Digital Photography - The Camera (Tutorial DVD)).  The videos are now a little dated, but still cover the basics well.  Of course, there is good content on YouTube as well.








*Note that the video is a little dated. He says, for example, that film photography is still the standard. That is no longer the case.


Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.






Friday, October 2, 2015

DigPhotog: Basic Tech: File Formats in Digital Photography [VID] (W6-P3) Fa15

And now, let's move from video back to still photography and from the artistic and on to the technical.

Let's start first with some discussion on how still photographs are stored digitally.  On your phone, camera memory card, or computer, digital photographs are stored in three possible formats.

The three primary file formats used in digital photography are jpeg, tiff and raw.*
Ever look at a list of photos on a computer and noticed ".jpg" at the end of the file name?  That photo was stored in the jpeg format.

So, what are the formats?  What are the differences?  What are the benefits and drawbacks of each?  Which should you use?*



Now with the basics out of the way, let's take a closer look at the idea of a raw file.  I like Mike Browne's cake metaphor.



If you want to learn more, I'd recommend "File Formats in Photography".




* Note that this discussion mainly applies to digital SLR cameras, since smartphones usually only allow jpeg formats.

Share this post with others. See the Twitter, Facebook and other buttons below.
Please follow, add, friend or subscribe to help support this blog.
See more about me at my web site WilliamHartPhD.com.