Thursday, September 29, 2016

MassMedia: Journalism: Building Blocks of a Print News Story (W6-P3) Fa16


Journalism is a broad field.  One type of journalism is print journalism and at the heart of the print journalism is the news story.  How are they written?  What are the basic building blocks of a news story?

Building Blocks of Print News Story (Hard News Story)
  1. Headline (required)
    1. What is the story about?  The topic?
    2. Usually written by editor. 
    3. Secondary headlines
  2. Byline 
    1. Authors name
  3. Lead (required)
    1. Entices reader  
    2. Contain the 5 W’s & H    
    3. AKA Summary Lead  
  4. Backup for the Lead (required)
    1. Lead should be supported with facts, quotes, etc. that substantiate the lead.
    2. Lead Quote (optional, but helps)
      1. The first quote that backs up the lead.  
      2. Helps to use strongest quote available.
  5. Impact (almost always, in some form)
    1. How does this affect readers?
    2. Sometimes earlier in story.
    3. Also as a separate paragraph later.
  6. Background (needed in most)
    1. Additional background info may be needed. 
  7. Elaboration (required, if space allows)
    1. Multiple sources.  Other points of view.
  8. Ending (required)
    1. Further elaboration.
    2. Statement or quote that summarizes, but does not repeat previous info.
    3. Future action.

A story should also include attribution.

  • Where did you get the information?
  • Who told you the facts?
  • "According to ..."

A story may also be accompanied by visuals.

  • Photographs, Pull Quotes, etc.


See if you spot some of the building blocks in the following story.




















You may also want to check a local paper or a national paper to see if you spot the basic building blocks in their news stories.


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MassMedia: Photojournalism (W6-P2) [VID] Fa16



In the mini photojournalism tutorial below, we'll focus on two things: the composition of a photograph and the caption that appears below a news photograph.

(1) Photo Composition

You don't take a photo, you make a photo."

Put another way: You compose a photograph.  You don't just take it.

Composition is the arrangement of the objects in the photograph or any other work of art.  As a photographer you have some control of this arrangement in your photograph.  You can move objects around.  You can move yourself around to shoot your photograph from a different perspective.  You take some control over your environment and not just take a photo of what you are given.

In general there are rules of composition that are used in art in general and photography specifically.

One of the best online sources for an introduction to the rules (or guidelines) of photo composition can be found at Photoinf.com.  Go to this site and study carefully the four rules of composition discussed in class.

Of course, there is more to composition than the above, but the above are the basics.


(2) Photo Captions

Besides composing a good photograph, photographers may also be involved in another type of composition. Photographers, especially photojournalist, may also compose captions for their photographs.  Let's learn how to write a news photo caption.


Richard Lee Bland Newspaper Photo
Source
They say that a picture is worth a thousand words.

If that is true for news photographs, then the caption (the verbal description) for the photograph, is like the lead to the thousand word story.

In a news article, the first few sentences of the story is the lead. The lead tells the reader the who, what, when, where, why and how of the story. Packed into the lead is quick overview of the whole news story.*


So, as Kobre' points out in his book, Photojournalism: The Professionals' Approach, a caption should tell the reader/viewer the who, what, when, where, why and how of the photograph.  The caption serves the same purpose as a lead in a written news story. [If your interest is specifically in photojournalism, I'd strongly recommend Kobre's book.]

The 5 W's and the H of a news story (or in this case, a news photograph):
  • Who - who is the news event about, who is in the photo?
  • What - what happened in the news event, what is happening in the photo?
  • When - when did the news event happen, when was the photo taken?
  • Where - where did the news event happen, where was the photo taken?
  • Why (1) - why did the news event happen, what happened that lead to the photograph, what happened before?
  • Why (2) - what is the significance of the news event, why is it important to us, what is going to happen after this event?
  • How - how did the event happen?

So, a lead in a written news story should answer the who, what, when, where and how of the new event and sometimes it'll address the why and how.

Now, if a caption of a news photograph is like the lead of a news story, then what does a caption include.

The Associated Press recommends a caption should contain two concise sentences. The first sentence of the caption should include the who, what, when and where.  The second sentence should provide the background information on the how and the why, especially the significance of the news event.

Tip: Start the first sentence with the most important thing to your audience.  If who is important, then start with who.  For example, if a celebrity is the who, then you'll probably want to start your sentence with that person's name. If the where is important, then start your first sentence with where.  For example, if a disease is breaking out is a certain area, then the location or where, is probably more important.

Check out AP's Top Photos of the Week page for current examples of news photographs and their captions. Hover the mouse over the photos to see the captions.  Do the AP photographers and photo editors practice what the AP style guidelines recommend?

Can you write a caption for a new photo?  Find some photos you know something about, perhaps from the AP link above or this link, and see if you can write a caption for the photo.  Practice. practice, practice.




* We're especially talking about hard news stories here.

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MassMedia: You Know News, But Do You Know Fake News? (W6-P1) [VID] Fa16


Before we talk about news and journalism, let's talk about what is not news or journalism.

Let's look specifically at VNRs.  Also note the relationship between VNRs and the more recent concept of native advertising.

Watch the following clip from a local TV news cast.



When watching the above clip from a news broadcast what are your reasonable assumptions?  That the people interviewed are local people?  That this is a local story?  That the reporter did the interviews and wrote the story?  That this is real news?

Now, check out this next video which was written and produced by independent video company and funded Quest Diagnostics, a company that runs lab testing centers around the U.S. where allergy testing is done. 




What did you notice?  What if you started both video clips at about the same time?  Try it. Start the bottom clip, wait a few seconds and start the top clip.  Notice any difference?

The second clip you saw is an example of what is called a video news release (some background).

"Video news releases or VNRs (also referred to as fake TV news) are segments designed to be indistinguishable from independently-produced news reports that are distributed and promoted to television newsrooms. TV stations incorporate VNRs into their newscasts, rarely alerting viewers to the source of the footage. While government-funded VNRs have been most controversial, most VNRs are paid for by corporations; non-governmental organizations also put out VNRs" (SourceWatch).

Check out the following video.



KMSP-9 Helps Rev Up Convertible Sales


If you are interested, see another video comparing a local news cast with a VNR on YouTube or check out even more examples of VNRs and local news stories from PRWatch.

In the clip above, Pakman, mentions the FCC's sponsorship identification rules. Here is one rule/law.

"... the Communications Act of 1934, ... requires broadcasters to disclose to their listeners or viewers if matter has been aired in exchange for money, services or other valuable consideration. The announcement must be aired when the subject matter is broadcast. The Commission has adopted a rule, ... which sets forth the broadcasters' responsibilities to make this sponsorship identification" (FCC). 

How does this apply in the VNR situation?

So, corporations put out VNRs and they sometimes show up as news.

Is the use of VNRs as news appropriate?  Is it ethical?   Who is at fault?

Spotted any examples of VNRs airing as news in the past few months?



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Wednesday, September 28, 2016

MediaTech: Granville Woods: Communication Technologist (W6-P4) Fa16


Now let's add to our current discussion...



But first a little musical interlude...
Pay special attention to about 2:49-2:53 of video.



See this video, makes me think.  Rap music is an innovation?
Question to ponder.  But, now, let's return to giving Granville Woods our special attention.






In 1913...

B.J. Nolan, Tennessee patent lawyer said:
“I never knew a Negro to even suggest a new idea. Much less try to patent one. And I have dealt with them all my life. P.S. I have asked other lawyers around me for data of Negro inventions. And they take it as a joke.”



Com Technologist: Granville Woods
  • 1884: Inventor of improved telephone transmitter
  • 1885: Inventor of telegraphony
  • 1887: Inventor of induction telegraph

35+ other patents

Why not mentioned in history books along side Edison, Bell, etc.?




Granville Woods: His story
  • Sometimes called the “Black Edison”
  • Born in 1856 in Australia or Ohio
  • Went to work at young age
  • Mainly self-educated / read anything he could find on electricity.
  • Worked as fireman and then engineer on railroad.

Telephone invented in 1870s by Bell

Early 1880s, Telephone Transmitter
Woods: “My invention relates to a method of and apparatus for the transmission of articulate speech and other sounds through the medium of electricity.”


1885: Inventor of telegraphony
A combination telephone and telegraph.
What need does this meet?


1887 induction telegraph
Woods: “for the purpose of averting accidents by keeping each train informed of the whereabouts of the one immediately ahead of following it, in communicating with the stations from moving trains…”





See transduction in this process?


Granville Woods: His story
  • Tried to market his inventions himself.
  • Sold/Gave up rights to many of his patents to corporations like: American Bell Telephone Company, General Electric and Westinghouse.
  • Died 1910 in virtual poverty.

See connections to Winston's model?


Similar story to other communication inventors?



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MediaTech: Audio/Video Tech (Basics): James West, the Microphone & the Signal Process (W6-P3) Fa16


The video below describes some technological inventions by African Americans.  The video mentions James West, Mark Dean and Gerald Lawson.




For our purposes here (media tech), let's give special attention to Lawson and West.

Lawson invented video game cartridges which lead to video game consoles (PlayStation, Xbox).

Now, let's especially focus on James West since his invention (the electret microphone) allows us to get back to the ideas of transduction and signal processing.


So, how does a basic microphone work?  What are the steps in the process?  Could you list them?



Now, lets breakdown that process a little further and see it in written form.
Next, go to this page and see specifically the graphic and text labeled "How a Microphone Works".



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MediaTech: Audio/Video Tech (Basics): Steps in Signal Process (W6-P2) Fa16


Think of a news event being covered live by a news crew.  How does the story get from the location of the event to you watching it on TV or maybe on your mobile device?

What are the steps in signal processing?

  • Step 1: Signal Generation
    • Audio Signal Generation; Video Signal Generation
  • Step 2: Amplification and Processing
    • Audio Amplification and Processing Video Amplification and Processing
  • Step 3: Signal Transmission
    • Audio Transmission; Video Transmission; Satellite Transmission
  • Step 4: Signal Reception
    • Radio Receivers; TV Receivers
  • Step 5: Storage and Retrieval
    • Audio Storage; Video Storage


Step 1: Signal Generation

"Audio signals are generated mechanically, by using microphones and turntables; electro-magnetically, by using tape recorders; and digitally, by using laser optics. Television signal generation involves the electronic line-by-line scanning of an image. An electron beam scans each element of a picture, and the image is then retraced in the TV receiver."


Step 2: Amplification and Processing

"Audio and video signals are amplified and mixed by using audio consoles and video switchers. Today’s digital technology enables sophisticated signal processing and a variety of special effects."


Step 3: Signal Transmission

"Radio waves occupy a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. AM radio channels are classified into clear, regional, and local channels. FM stations are classified according to power and antenna height. The wide bandwidth of an FM channel allows for stereo broadcasting and other nonbroadcast services. There are two types of digital radio: satellite-based and in-band, on-channel."


Step 4: Signal Reception

"Radio receivers pull in AM, FM, and other signals, in monaural or stereo. New digital multiband receivers are becoming more prevalent. In TV, large and small-screen receivers have attained record sales in recent years, abetted by new digital capabilities and "smart" remote control devices."

Technology cluster? Relationship to adoption?


Step 5: Storage and Retrieval

"New technology is reshaping audio and video storage and retrieval. Phonograph records, compact discs, and videotapes are being supplemented and may ultimately be replaced by digital storage media, such as recordable CDs, digital versatile disks (DVDs), and high-capacity disk drives on computers. A comparatively new phenomenon, audio and video streaming, permits radio and TV stations to send their complex signals onto the Internet."



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MediaTech: Audio/Video Tech (Basics) (W6-P1) Fa16



Basic Principles/Science of Media Technology
  • "Broadcasting, cable, and new media make use of facsimile technology, reproducing sound and sight in other forms. The better the correspondence between the facsimile and the original, the higher the fidelity."
  • Transduction is the process of "changing energy from one form to another; it is at the heart of audio and video technology. Transduction can be analog—the transformed energy resembles the original—or digital—the original is transformed into a series of numbers."  Examples of transduction include energy going from physical energy to electrical, from light to electrical and from electrical to electromagnetic (radio waves).
At what point or points in signal processing does transduction occur for traditional (over-the-air) radio?




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Tuesday, September 27, 2016

InterculturalCom: Nonverbal Intercultural Communication: Universal NVC? (Mr. Bean) [VID] (W6-P4) Fa16


As you watch this clip, how many nonverbal communication behaviors can you spot?



How many nonverbal communication behaviors did you spot? What did the behaviors communicate to you? Of the types of nonverbal communication functions, which where illustrated here? Emblems?  Others?
Are the nonverbal communication behaviors in the clip more universal or more culturally specific?
What is the secret of Mr. Bean being popular around the world?


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InterculturalCom: Nonverbal Intercultural Communication: Culture Specific (Gods Must Be Crazy) [VID] (W6-P3) Fa16


The clip below is from "The Gods Must be Crazy."  If you get the chance, I'd encourage you to watch the full film for a variety of intercultural reasons (nonverbals, racial depictions, colonialism, etc.)

This is a clip that I edited and posted on YouTube. I use this clip in my Intercultural Communication course to introduce students to nonverbal communication in the intercultural communication context.




Was there an intercultural nonverbal communication problem in the above clip?   Why was there miscommunication?

How is the above video related to the one below?




Some forms of NVC are universal (i.e., understood around the world). Some forms of NVC have different meanings in different cultures.

How do the videos illustrate these ideas?  What about the head shake?



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InterculturalCom: Nonverbal Intercultural Communication: Definition & Types of NVC (by Function) (W6-P2) Fa16


Nonverbal communication: “Nonlinguistic (involving neither written nor spoken language) behavior that creates meaning for someone”(BBR).

Nonverbal communication can serve several functions
  1. Emblems - can be used to replace words, direct verbal translation  (e.g., the "O.K." gesture).
  2. Illustrators - accompany and clarify spoken word (e.g., pointing when telling somebody directions).
  3. Affect displays - movement of face, etc. which show emotion (e.g. a smile).
  4. Regulators - movements which encourage or discourage further communication … “traffic cops” of conversation (e.g., a student raises their hand in classroom and prof. stops and allows them to speak).
  5. Adaptors - movements to satisfy physical or psychological discomfort (e.g., scratching an itch).
Besides the examples given above, can you think of other examples?  Think of some nonverbal behaviors and see if you can fit them into the above function categories.

Which functions are more universal (i.e., be understand regardless of culture)? Which are more culturaly relative (i.e., would not be understood across cultures)?



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InterculturalCom: Nonverbal Intercultural Communication: Efron & Examples (W6-P1) Fa16


Examples of Nonverbal Communication Across Cultures.

The study of Intercultural Nonverbal Communication can be traced back to David Efron (1941).
Efron studied the nonverbal communication behaviors of eastern Jews and southern Italians in New York City.







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Monday, September 26, 2016

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Prestige Profiles" album by Lightnin' Hopkins. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Happy Blues For John Glenn
By Lightnin’ Hopkins
From the album Prestige Profiles

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on September 26, 2016 at 08:30PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






Sunday, September 25, 2016

MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "Prestige Profiles" album by Lightnin' Hopkins. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: Back To New Orleans
By Lightnin’ Hopkins
From the album Prestige Profiles

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on September 25, 2016 at 10:45PM

See info on 1000 Recordings

Listen on Spotify

My musical interests on Tumblr






"Indian Givers...Young, Neil" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

Indian Givers...Young, Neil


"Indian Givers...Young, Neil"
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/CM-NkM-dIDA
Liked on September 25, 2016 at 11:28AM






Saturday, September 24, 2016

"T.I. - Warzone" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

T.I. - Warzone


"War Zone is available now! iTunes: http://bit.ly/2cEAh0i Spotify: http://bit.ly/2cDDREI TIDAL: http://bit.ly/2cEyWGT GooglePlay: http://bit.ly/2cDCUfM Amazon: http://bit.ly/2cEA1P6 Follow T.I.: Instagram: http://bit.ly/2csy0iO Twitter: https://twitter.com/TIP Facebook: http://bit.ly/2dia1Jl Directed by Laureal Richardson Produced by Antwanette McLaughlin Director of Cinematography Chad Tennis Video Edited by Visual Authority Media For The Spice Group/Grand Hustle Music video by T.I. performing Warzone. (C) 2016 Grand Hustle, LLC Distributed By Roc Nation Records http://vevo.ly/adL6Qq"
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/VKcw35_saLY
Liked on September 24, 2016 at 09:50AM






Tuesday, September 20, 2016

"Apple ad spotlights diversity in time for Olympics" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

Apple ad spotlights diversity in time for Olympics


"Apple's newest commercial aims to positively represent global diversity by using photos shot on an iPhone, set to the narration of Maya Angelou's "Human Family". The ad will debut on TV during the Olympic Opening Ceremonies."
Via YouTube http://youtu.be/fyzI2Lu9Qcw
Liked on September 19, 2016 at 10:18PM






Thursday, September 15, 2016

MassMedia: Operationalizing Your Variables (W4-P5) [VID] Fa16


Once your variables have been identified, then they will need to be measured, but how?   And, what does an operational definition have to do with it?

What is an operational definition?  What does it mean to operationalize a variable?

"Operational definition" is "a statement that describes the observable characteristics of a concept being investigated…”(Frey, et.al).  Or, put differently, an operational definition “specifies the procedures [or operations] the researcher uses to observe the variables” (Stacks, et.al).  Notice how the second definition indicates why it is called "operatioal."

Both I.V.s & D.V.s need O.D.s.   Operational definitions allow you to measure a variable.

What does the following Jeff Foxworthy comedy have to do with operationalization?  What is Foxworthy doing in his jokes?  Is he operationally defining something?





----
Operationalization Examples:

1. Let's say you are going to do some research on prejudice, how would you operationalize prejudice?

  • Start with the conceptual definition or dictionary definition:
    • “the irrational hatred or suspicion of a particular group, race, religion, or sexual orientation”(Jandt).
  • What would the operational definition be?  How would you measure prejudice?

What are the basic “operational procedures” or ways of measuring variables?

Operational procedures:
  1. Self-report 
    1. the researcher asks subjects to report about themselves
  2. Observer’s ratings 
    1. researcher asks subject to observer and rate another
  3. Observe behavior
    1. researcher observes subject
Which method would you trust more?  Which would give a more valid measure?  Why?

How would you use these procedures with prejudice or violence?  Which would "work" better?



2. Let's say you are going to do some research on violence and video games, how would you operationalize violence?

  • Conceptual/dictionary definition of violence: "exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse" (Merriam-Websters)

3. Let's say you are going to do some research on the effects of television on children, what would be the variables you'd study and how would you operationalize them?




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MassMedia: Research Questions (RQs) & Hypotheses (H) (U4-P4) [VID] Fa16


Research question (RQ): "An interrogative statement exploring the relationship between two or more constructs [concepts, variables, etc.]" (Stewart, 2002, p. 173).

In short, is there a relationship between one variable and another?

In the past I asked students to offer research questions they had a serious interest in answering.  Do the student examples below fit the definition?  Any problems you spot with the examples?

  • "Does visual stimuli, or auditory stimuli, in advertisements positively affect a consumers buying behavior, meaning will the consumer be inclined to buy if a stimulating message is communicated across one of the two communication channels."
  • "Is there a positive (or a negative) relationship between the amount of violence communicated in cartoons?"
  • "Is there an increase in female orgasms in relationships related to the increase in communication?"




What are the types of variables?
  • A variable is any concept that takes on two or more values.
  • Two types:
    • Nominal: Categories
      • e.g., gender, profession, race, nationality, etc.
    • Ordered: Takes on numerical values
      • e.g., age, IQ, a prejudice score, time in conversation, etc.
What's the difference you spot between nominal and ordered?

Note: We'll add other types later, but this will work for now.




Could you generate some RQs based on the variables listed under nominal and ordered?

More importantly, based on the research topic that you identified earlier, what are some possible RQs you could ask?

When thinking of media-oriented RQs make sure of the following:
  • RQs are questions that can be answered using research methodologies. (Remember: Ways of knowing?)
  • RQs are related to media.  At least one variable/concept should be related to media.


Now, that we've got a grasp on an RQ, what is exactly is an H?  They are related, right?

Hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variable (the dependent and independent variables).
Null hypothesis is a statement that says there is no relationship between the research variables.

How are RQs and Hs similar?  How are they different?





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MassMedia: How is Doing Research Like Being a Detective? (W4-P3) [VID] Fa16


Use the previous posts on theory and research and the video below to answer this question.

How is doing research like being a detective?


  • Theory: an explanation of how something works.  
    • A good or well-supported theory is based on evidence.
  • Research: "“Disciplined inquiry...studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so that others can replicate the process” (Frey et al.).


Also note that a researcher does research to test and build theories.

What roles do theory and evidence play in this comparison?

From: The Mentalist






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MassMedia: What is Research? (W4-P2) Fa16


Research is:

“Disciplined inquiry...studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so that others can replicate the process” (Frey et al.)

Keywords: planned, reporting and replicate
What do they mean in this context?

Research, as discussed here, is more than "research" done at the library.  Instead of reading through books and online materials for answers that some other researcher has found, you conduct original research on your own to find the answer.  That is, you conduct an experiment or a survey or a textual analysis or use some other research method to find the answer.  Somebody is not telling you an answer in a book or report, you are finding the answer to your research question on your own.

Two types:
  • Scholarly 
    • conducted to promote public access to new knowledge
    • usually conducted by a professor at a university
  • Proprietary
    • conducted for a specific audience, results not shared
    • usually conducted by a research at a company

Why are results not shared in proprietary research?
Could you give examples of each of the two types?
Which of the two types of research would you be more likely to do in the future?

How does this discussion of research relate to the earlier discussion of science?



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MassMedia: Science, Science Communicators & Science Literacy - Neil deGrasse Tyson (W4-P1) [VID] Fa16


Science

Below are some possible definitions of science based a presentation by Dr. William McComas (Skeptic Society).


  • “Science is what scientists do.”
    • So, science is what scientist do.  Scientist are those who do science.   This one isn't so helpful.
  • “Science is a method of testing claims and it is not an immutable compendium of absolute truths.”
    • This definition works.  Highlights how science is a process, something we do.
  • “Science is the quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself.”
    • Again, science is a process, in this case, a quest.



=======

 Science Communicators and Science Literacy


Neil deGrasse Tyson is "an American astrophysicist and science communicator."
@neiltyson | Facebook

Below Tyson speaks of science and scientific literacy.
What is scientific literacy?  Is it important?

My Tyson Mashup

1. Stephen Colbert Interview of Tyson (start at 6:15 and get to at least, 25:30, if you can)


2. Tyson at a science festival



3. Audio clip of Tyson speaking at the Science Pub in Portland, Oregon, 2009 (play clip from about 4:00-11:20).

A formal definition of scientific literacy"scientific literacy is the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity" (National Academy of Sciences report).

What does Neil DeGrasse Tyson add to the definition?
You may not plan to be a scientist, but should you be science literate?  How do you become science literate?



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MyFavMusic: Just listened to the "The Essential Otis Rush" album by Otis Rush. Added a FAV track to my "BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings" playlist on Spotify



Fav track from album: She’s A Good ‘Un
By Otis Rush
From the album The Essential Otis Rush

Added to BLUES FAVS - 1000 Recordings playlist by William Hart on September 15, 2016 at 11:31AM

See info on 1000 Recordings

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Wednesday, September 14, 2016

MediaTech: Innovation Adoption & Development: Winston's Model (W4-P3) Fa16



In his book, Media Technology and Society: A History From the Telegraph to the Internet, Brian Winston describes his model of technological development and diffusion.

Let's focus on the development of an early communication technology, the telegraph.





Recall...

According to Winston's model a new technology starts (1) as an idea based on science and then (2) develops into early prototypes. As a technology develops it faces some social pressures ((3) does society see a need for it and (4) will powerful competitors or the government attempt to repress the technology?). The technology will then (5) diffuse through a society and may (6) spin-off related technologies.

The same process applies to the telegraph.  Did you see the process in the video clip above?




Let's highlight certain parts of this process.





See the Winston process in the Empire of the Air?


Source: Media Technology and Society: A History From the Telegraph to the Internet









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MediaTech: Innovation Adoption & Development: Rogers Development (W4-P2) Fa16


Note: Don't confuse this with the adoption decision process.

How does the innovation development process work?
How does an innovation come to exist, diffuse and influence society?
  1. Recognizing a Problem or Need
  2. Basic and Applied Research
  3. Development
  4. Commercialization
  5. Diffusion and Adoption
  6. Consequences

Did you see this process in the Empire of the Air?


1. Recognizing a Problem or Need

  • Was there a need for radio?   Did it solve a problem?


2. Basic and Applied Research
  • Basic research: gain basic scientific knowledge related to the problem/need
  • Applied research: using scientific knowledge to specifically solve the problem.
  • What did the early inventors of radio need to know?  What was there research?

3. Development
  • How did radio develop?  What is the story?
  • Role of skunk works in organizations?   (Oxford Dictionary definition
  • Technology transfer: two-way exchange of tech
    • Technology transfer: “two or more parties must participate in a series of communication exchanges as they seek to establish a mutual understanding about the meaning of the technology” (Rogers)
  • Example
    • VCR invented by Ampex, a U.S. company in late 50s
    • Sold big VCRs to television stations
    • Home use: They said “we’re not in that market”
    • Sold rights to Sony
    • And now you know the rest of the story

4. Commercialization
  • Commercialization: “the production, manufacturing, packaging, marketing, and distribution of a product that embodies the innovation” (Rogers).
  • Did they talk of the commercialization of radio in the clip?  In the reading?
  • Technology cluster: “consists of one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being interrelated closely.” (Rogers)
    • e.g., computer and mouse
    • e.g., mp3 player and __________
  • What are the elements of the radio cluster that would also diffuse?

5. Diffusion and Adoption

  • How did radio diffusion?  Did it diffusion widely?


6. Consequences
  • What effects did radio have on society?
  • More on consequences later.  We'll return to that important topic later.

Did you see this process in the Empire of the Air?


Besides radio, do you have some understanding of this process as it relates to some other media technology? What about some Apple devices?  Did the recent Jobs movie show any of this process?



Source: Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed.


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MediaTech: Innovation Adoption & Development: Rogers Decision (W4-P1) Fa16



In his book, Rogers explains the process people go through when adopting an innovation, more specifically the decision process.

See below.






















    Source: Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed.


    We can boil the decision process down to just five steps.


    Rogers’ model for the adoption decision process

    What are the steps in the adoption decision process?
    1. "Knowledge - learning about the existence and function of the innovation
    2. Persuasion - becoming convinced of the value of the innovation
    3. Decision - committing to the adoption of the innovation
    4. Implementation - putting it to use
    5. Confirmation - the ultimate acceptance (or rejection) of the innovation”

    Think carefully about the most recent new tech you bought, I mean adopted.  Did you go through this process?  Review the process above and think about it.

    What was the tech?  How did you learn about the new tech?  How were you persuaded to get it?  What about the rest of the process?



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    Tuesday, September 13, 2016

    InterculturalCom: Your Values and the Parable [Activity] (W4-P5)

    The Parable is a well-know intercultural training activity that helps in the understanding of values.


    "The Parable"

    The study of intercultural communication has a rich and interesting history.  That's one of the reasons that I study it. There is a long history of government organizations training people to be better intercultural communicators (e.g., diplomats).  Out of this training comes some helpful and long-lasting intercultural training exercises.  "The Parable" is one of those exercises.  Below is the parable as it appeared in a 1973 Unesco document (pdf).  Read the story and then rank in order that characters that you most approve of.  The person that you approve of at the top and the bottom would be the person that you least approve of.



    If you are curious, see also Dr. Ting-Toomey's version of The Parable.

    Dr. Hart's classroom instructions:

    • Write down on a piece of paper, in rank order, the characters whose behaviors you most approve.
    • Break into groups of 4 to discuss your results.  Create a rank list for the group.
    • What have you learned as a result of this activity?
    • Can anyone point to something in your past that shaped the values you used in this activity?  Who/what programmed you?
    • Value: “A principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable” (TheFreeDictionary.com).

    If you are curious: More related activities from CSU Fullerton faculty (pdf).



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    InterculturalCom: Cultural Values: Hofstede’s Dimensions of Value Orientations (W4-P4) Fa16








    A high uncertainty avoidance person or culture would want to avoid any uncertainty.
    If a person or generally a group of people have high uncertainty avoidance, would they be more future oriented or more past oriented?
    Which would be more likely to take risks?  Hi-UA or low-UA?













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    InterculturalCom: Cultural Values: Hall's High Context / Low Context (W4-P3) Fa16

    What values do we have about how we should communicate with one another?
    What is the good and proper way to communicate?
    One way of getting answers to these questions is to look at Hall's concepts of high/low - context.




    How does this relate to a more direct and indirect communication?   Same idea?


    Thunderbird School of Global Management Professor Robert Moran

    Heard the phrase "reading between the lines"?  In what culture (high or low context) would you have to more often "read between the lines"?

    Know of any individuals in your life you could label as high or low context communicators?

    Would it be easier for a more homogeneous society to use high context communication?  Why?



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    InterculturalCom: Cultural Values: Kluckhohn, Kluckhohn, Strodtbeck’s Value Orientation Scales (W4-P2) Fa16


    What are Kluckhohn, Kluckhohn, Strodtbeck’s Value Orientation Scales?

    Value Orientation Scales based on a studies done by anthropologists (Kluckhohn, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck) during the 1950s in New Mexico.



    Do these sound familiar?  Can you place a person you know or a cultural group into one of the three categories in the above five dimensions?  Some cultures are already placed above.  What about others?



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    InterculturalCom: Cultural Values: Dominant American Values? (W4-P1) Fa16


    Value: “a principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable” (TheFreeDictionary.com).

    Values are developed within a culture and are part of what one learns when one learns the culture of a group.

    A chief source of values is religion.

    Are there dominant American cultural values? What are they?  Where did they come from?




    Note where each value is placed on the map.  Any significance?




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    Monday, September 12, 2016

    Saturday, September 10, 2016

    "The Black Eyed Peas - #WHERESTHELOVE ft. The World" (My New Liked Vid on YouTube) [VID]

    The Black Eyed Peas - #WHERESTHELOVE ft. The World


    "Get #WHERESTHELOVE on iTunes now. http://bit.ly/2cMDieW Credits: http://bit.ly/2ce7Yk8 For more, visit: http://bit.ly/2cMCYNm http://bit.ly/2ce8bn8 https://twitter.com/bep http://bit.ly/2cMCfLL Music video by The Black Eyed Peas performing #WHERESTHELOVE. (C) 2016 Interscope Geffen (A&M) Records A Division of UMG Recordings Inc. http://vevo.ly/aRLxez"
    Via YouTube http://youtu.be/YsRMoWYGLNA
    Liked on September 9, 2016 at 11:50PM






    Thursday, September 8, 2016

    MassMedia: SCOT, Tech Determinism and the Media Tech (W3-P4) Fa16


    For those of us who are especially interested in media technologies, there are two basic theories worthy of discussion.

    Ev Rogers and I once wrote a book chapter which, in part, explained the Social Construction of Technology and Technological Determinism theories.  We also tied the two theories together.


    The chapter appeared in The Changing Conversation in America edited by Eadie and Nelson.


    Ev and I wrote about Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) this way:


    We said of Technological Determinism:



    At the end of the chapter we included a diagram.


    NOTE: There is something missing in the figure.  It was included in the paper we submitted, but left out in the printing.  What is missing?

    What do we mean by "complete picture" (see caption of the diagram)?



    Using SCOT and TD to Understand the Historical Development of Technology

    How do these theories help us understand how media technologies develop?

    How do these theories help us better understand the history of past media technology?  Books? Radio?  TV?   How do they help us understand the stories of Gutenberg, Edison, Woods, De Forest, Armstrong and Farnsworth?  For example, how could we use the idea of  social construction of technology to explain (or understand) the story of Granville Woods?

    How do they help us better understand the development of more recent media technologies (computers, the PC, the Internet, etc.)?   How do they help us understand the stories of Bill Gates and Steve Jobs?  Mark Zuckerberg?




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    MassMedia: History of Media Theory: Timeline (W3-P3) Fa16


    Earlier we defined theory as an explanation of how or why something works.

    We've also discussed the relationship between theory and research. Researchers generally test theories, find support for theories or not.

    Now, let's turn our focus specifically to media-related theories and let's start with a brief historical overview.




    If the timeline is not showing above for you, the History of Media Theory timeline can be also be found at this link.





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    MassMedia: Introducing Thomas Kuhn and the Paradigms (W3-P2) Fa16


    Along with a general discussion of theory, another related concept you sometimes see is the concept of a paradigm.

    Q: What is a paradigm?
    A: Oh, about 20 cents.

    But seriously, what is a paradigm and what is the relationship to theory and research?

    Let's get a general introduction to the concept of a paradigm and also the person who greatly developed it, Thomas Kuhn.



    Ans so, what is Kuhn's concepts of paradigm and paradigm shift?

    While not as visually appealing, let's also take a quick look at this informative description of Kuhn and his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.




    Kuhn's theory of scientific development can be used to understand the history of communication study and specific sub-fields within the discipline of communication.

    For example see:
    Rogers, E. M. & Hart, W. B. (2002). The histories of intercultural, development, and international communication. In W. B. Gudykunst and B. Moody (Eds.), Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication, 2nd Edition (pp. 1-18). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications.

    Kuhn's ideas have also been used to tell paradigmatic history of agenda-setting theory.

    Rogers, E. M., Hart, W. B. & Dearing, J. W. (1997). A paradigmatic history of agenda-setting research. In S. Iyengar & R. Reeves (Eds.). Do the Media Govern?: Politicians, Voters, and Reporters in America (pp. 225-236). Thousand Oaks: CA, Sage Publications.

    Before reading the agenda-setting chapter, it may be helpful to get a good grasp of the basics of agenda-setting theory.





    Did you spot the parts of paradigmatic history just in this short video?





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    MassMedia: Theories and the Theory of Evolution (W3-P1) Fa16


    For our discussion of mass media theory let's start with a basic definition of the word theory and a common example from biology.

    theory is an explanation for how something works, how something happens. 

    To get a good grasp of what a theory is, let's start by looking at a theory from the field of biology

    One of the best explanations of biological evolution and the mechanism that drives evolution is found in Carl Sagan's Cosmos video series which was based on the book Cosmos. In the following video Sagan describes the process of artificial selection.  As you are watching this clip from Cosmos, be sure to identify and be able to explain the mechanism that drives evolution.

    Let's start first in Japan some time ago and the story of a drowned boy-emperor, a small crab and the idea of artificial selection.







    In this short clip the process is explained in a different way. Slow the process down and catch each step. It starts with organisms vary.









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    Wednesday, September 7, 2016

    MediaTech: The Invention of Radio - Ken Burns' "Empire of the Air" (W3-P6) Fa16


    Now, a great way of using the previously discussed media tech theories is to apply them to the development of a past media technology, for example radio.  Filmmaker, Ken Burns, told the story of radio in his documentary "Empire of the Air."  Notice the story is not as much about the technology as it is about the people (the innovators).  Media tech is people too.

    The documentary is available...
    on Amazon (Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio) and on Netflix (instant streaming).

    The companion book to the film is also available (Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio)

    Did you watch it?

    How did the theories previously discussed help to understand the development of radio?

    In the documentary, Burns highlights the story of Lee de Forest, for example. How does his story compare to modern-day media tech innovators like Steve Jobs?  Is there a common story for media tech innovators?

    Here is a short YouTube video on de Forest's audion.







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